1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization, these factors include: capital, equipment, manpower, etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.
Manpower planning aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, it becomes imperative to develop the employee.
Manpower development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. Manpower development is important in any discussion of strategic human resources management.
These emphasis on manpower and development is influenced by the belief that it is now desirable to focus more attention on areas which in the past has been relatively neglected because every organization regardless of its size must provide for the needs, interest and desire of its employee within the work environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete effectively.
Since the early 1960, the human factor of production of manpower as it is alternatively called, has increasable been recognized as the most critical resource of the factors without which an effective utilization of all other factors remain a dream. Although, it might to tempting to attach more importance to the availability of physical resource such as capital and equipment undermining that they are mere passive factors of production, which depend on human intellectual which is the active agent to exploit them in order to achieve the objective of the organization. Thus, the human factors (manpower) is the main stay of the organization.
In other words, the success of an organization depends on the ability and expertise of those who operate it both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such abilities and expertise usually stems from the knowledge they possess and training received.
According to Harbison, F.H. (1973), human being constitutes the ultimate basis of a nation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the organization, which implies that with daily increase and complexity in the organizational activities and the problem ensuring optimum productivity which is fast becoming a challenge as well as imperative for the management of organization, thus, training and development of staff on whom the huge responsibility of furthering these goals rest, must take top priority if the organization must continue to enjoy maximum performance from the staff.
The main objective of setting up a company is to make profit and to achieve this organizational goal, adequate manpower planning and development programmes should be put in place to enhance performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals.
However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well-defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes.
The very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing functions do so with lack of seriousness; all round attention and continuity. The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue moon but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation. As a result of this, lackadaisical attitude of management towards training and manpower development. There had been a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that attend the over unfolding new dispensation in the industry, in the circumstance, what we find is that the rise in industrial output is inconsequential in spite of the enormous wave of modern technology that now exist in industrial activities.
It is the opinion of industry observes that the poor performance of the organization-workers follows from their inability to keep abreast with the new technological current as a result of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training. It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of performance training and development on organizational performance of this mission, however, the researcher used Intercontinental Bank Plc as a reference.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with quality of the selection and interview procedure?
2. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with the placement and promotion procedure?
3. Are there training programmes for the employees?
4. How adequate in terms of content and relevance, are these training progammes relevant?
5. Has the promotion process in the bank improved employees’ performance?
6. Are the employees of the bank utilized after their training?
1.4 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
v To conduct an empirical investigation through a review of the manpower planning and development policy of the bank.
v To access the staff recruitment, selection and training programmes and from it, establish some relationship between these programmes and problems enumerated.
v To highlight the need for manpower planning and development in the company.
v To identify some techniques of manpower training and development in the company and their relevance to the company needs and the industry at large.
v To establish the relationship between personnel training and development and staff performance.
v To correct the belief that in this age of computerization and technological development, all that business units need to survive in the acquisition of up-to-date capital equipment to the neglects of the power management of its human resources.
v To proffer solutions to the identified problems.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The testable hypotheses of this research study are the following:
HO: There is no direct relationship between manpower training and productivity in the bank.
H1: There is direct relationship between the manpower training and productivity.
HO: Lack of adequate manpower training and development is not directly responsible for high labour turnover.
H1: Adequate manpower and development is directly responsible for higher labour turnover.
HO: Training does not the productivity of employees and the organization.
H1: Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Banking services constitute the backbone of the economy of a great country like Nigeria; no wonder it is always the most active sector in stock exchange. It is upon this premise that government monitors the activities of the banks through the Central Bank of Nigeria and provides the necessary infrastructures for optimum services to the public.
In spite of all efforts geared towards improving the services of that banking industry, there are some doubts as to the quality of services rendered by the banks to its customers in particular and the nation in general. It is in light of this that the researcher through the work intend to look into the factors militating against Intercontinental Bank Plc in achieving its sets objectives, by this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of the Intercontinental Bank Plc and assess their suitability with the aim of developing training programmes to enhance their performance since the progress of an organization is a function of the quality of those directing its affairs. The importance of this cannot be overemphasized especially in these periods when most companies are international standard complaint. It therefore behooves a company to plan and train its workers for the best quality of work to be relevant in the scheme of globalization.
This is particularly directed to establishment that are prone to think that the intractable problems of their organization is finance and not manpower planning and development it will also evaluate aspects of the recruitment, selection and training process, which bear strong relevance to corporate image, productivity efficiency and morals.
For the management of Intercontinental Bank Plc, the benefit of training and development is that quality of work, life of the employees will reciprocate with increase performance on the job.
This will go a long way in providing job satisfaction and services as motivation towards the realization of individual aspiration, it will also be relevant to the human resource development department in the formulation of policies relating to training and development of personnel and for the government, to ensure adequate training and know-how to improve the economy as a whole.
1.7 LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Intercontinental Bank Plc was selected for this study. The coverage may give time representation of selection practice in the government owned enterprises in the economy and the organized private sector.
The study was also limited to employees of the bank. The problems, the researcher encountered was that some officers were either too busy for interviews or cleverly avoided certain questions for the fear that the information given might put their jobs in jeopardy. Those who responding to questions tends to make their answers to reflect what ought to be rather that what is, this undoubtedly affected the quality and accuracy of information collected during the study.
A large population of the staff falls among the junior staff and as such, it is difficult to really get their opinion as regards manpower development as they are shy to respond and do not really appreciate the importance of development. A lot of finance was also required in making this project a reality, thus, the researcher was faced with the problem of finance and time.
These difficulties notwithstanding the researcher made concert efforts to ensure that the project was comprehensively carried out to meet the desired needs.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effects were made at defining the following terminologies use din this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.
Ø Development: This is the process concerned with people’s capacity in a defined and over a period to manage and involve positive change, and reduce or eliminate unwanted change.
Ø Manpower: The human resource of a business concern. These include unskilled, skilled supervisory and management staff of a company.
Ø Planning: Setting objectives and deciding on the best ways of achieving the objectives.
Ø Empirical: Of people or method guided only by practical experience rather than by scientific ideas.
Adeyemo Aderinto: “Interstate Mobility of High-Level Manpower: Implication for Achieving Even Development in Nigeria”, The Nigeria Journal of Development Studies.
Ashton, D. Margerson, C.J. (2000): Planning for Human Resources, London: Longman Group Limited.
Bruce, F. (2004): An Interpreted System of Manpower Planning, New York: McGraw Hill Books Company.
Diejemoah, V.P. (2001): Development of Manpower in Nigeria, Ibadan: University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Graham, H.T. (2001): Human Resource Management, London: M & E Handbook, McDonald and Evans Limited.
A long time ago, in the history of management, it dawned on social scientist that for an organization to survive and succeed, an effective workforce is required. This obviously that specialists are needed to handle the resource of the organization to maximize returns.
Scientists such as Robert Owen and Elton Mayol were popular for their interest in the betterment of the lives of employees and productivity in general. The aim of the project among others is to answer the questions about whether training and learning within an organization could be productive or not and this have sparked the interest in examining prevalent but often inconsistent assumption about what constitutes training within an organization. If training is productive, it must be systematically planned and executed.
2.2 MANPOWER PLANNING
Most writers have concerned themselves essentially within putting forward arguments for and against the very idea of manpower planning and development in organizations. Some other writers have emphasized the need for manpower planning and how to ensure increased efficiency and productivity through the use of manpower plans and development programmes.
Thomas Kempwer (1971:13) sees manpower planning as the name given to the drawing up of different types that the company will require over a period of years. He believes that once a company has developed a long-range strategy (corporate planning), it become possible to estimate the number of people of all types and categories that may be required over the following years.
Olusola Aina (1992:68) defined manpower planning or human resource planning as a possible for determining and assuring that an organization will have, adequate number of skilled and experienced person available at the right time and place performing jobs which meet the needs of the organization and which provides satisfaction for the workers involved. Manpower planning in providing adequate number of skilled workers is expected to provide job satisfaction to those workers in return.
Ubeku Abel (1975:25) defined manpower planning as part of organizational planning. He observed that it should therefore be seen not in isolation but in the total context of the growth of the organization. According to him, manpower planning covers much than simple planning the future manpower requirements of an organization since it hinges on all aspects of the business.
This approach goes beyond mere consideration of supply but is not specific on what other aspects of business manpower hinges on. It also comes with the impression that the only concrete matter it deals with is future supply of manpower.
Oliver Ibekwe (1984:19), asserted that human resources of a business are collectively known as manpower which could be unskilled, skilled, supervisory staff and it is aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the job at the right time.
David Quest et al (1969) sees manpower planning as an effort to integrate through personnel policies and planning the various personnel activities such as recruitment, training, management development, payment and industrial relations.
Training according to Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary states that training is the process of preparing somebody or being prepared for job. In manpower development, training is therefore an indispensable element and at the same time, a vehicle for development and planning.
According to Stemetz et al (1969:68), training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge skilled for a definite period. Thus, training is technically oriented. It is designed to improve the technical and mechanical skill of personnel. Training therefore are usually designed for both non-managerial and managerial staff.
Dorman Price (1975:572), emphasized the role of training in management activity especially in the area of human resources management. according to him, the training function is a management activity in which the personnel department provides the necessary specialist knowledge and usually carries out in addition to the administrative requirements so that the function operates effectively within the organization. He went further to state the basic stages in establishing a training function with the view to improving on the manpower development.
These stages are:
Ø To find out the training needs of the particular needs of the particular company at all levels.
Ø To formulate a training policy which will meet the needs of the organization.
Ø To evaluate the resources both financial and material which could be required.
Ø To provide the necessary specialist training officers who will be responsible for implementing both the training policy and the training plan.
A training need can be said to exist when there is a gap between the existing performance of an employee (or group of employees), and the desired performance to assess whether such a gap requires a skill analysis. The analysis has five stages:
v To analyze and determine the main requirements of the particular job.
v To identify they task required to be undertaken to meet the job requirements.
v To understand the procedures required to perform the task.
v To analyze the knowledge and skill required to perform the processes.
v To identify and specify problems of the job and to analyze any particular skill required to solve the problem.
But if we consider a situation where not training function exists in the organization, the skills analysis should be undertaken initially of these jobs or areas, which appears to present the most urgent training needs and this can be followed up by a skill analysis of all jobs when the training function has been established.
Development generally means the process of causing somebody or something to grow or making something to become larger gradually. But in relation to manpower development can be seen as a process of increasing the quality or value or skill of an employee (personnel).
From the definition, it can be sent that training facilitates manpower development and consequently his performance. Manpower training and manpower development are two inter-related processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any decision of strategic human resource management. they are related tot eh series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capacity.
In this view of Chanokan, J.S. (1987:204), manpower development refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in the employees as a result of educating and training programmes. He says that development is managerial in nature and career focused. To distinguish training and development, Chanokan has this to day, “that unlike the training, the workers which improves technical and mechanical skills, development techniques are designed for work behaviour modification”. According to him, development is an educational process, utilizing a systematic organizational procedure by which a worker learns the conceptual and theoretical knowledge for effective pursuance of their responsibilities.
2.5 DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING
The reason for manpower planning and development, it is important to say a little about development. As jobs are becoming more and more complex, it becomes imperative for employers of labour to train their workers unlike when jobs were simple and little technical knowledge was required from the workers.
Manpower training and development are two interrelated processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any discussion of strategic human resource management. this related to the series of activities, which an enterprise would need to embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capital.
Manpower development has been described as the systematic process which an organization has to go through to ensure that it has the effective managers it requires to meet its present and future needs.
According to De Philips et al (1964:8), training is a process when under company auspices seeks a planned, coordinated and conscious manner to develop in the employees those understanding skill and attitude, which will maximize individual’s present and future efficiency and effectiveness of the overall company operations.
2.6 TYPES OF TRAINING AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
There are many types of training and manpower development programmes available. The particular method chosen by a company can be influenced by considering cost and time available, number of persons to be trained, depth of knowledge required, background of the trainee, etc.
Manpower development is a systematic process of training and growth by which individuals gain and apply knowledge, skill, insights and attitude, manage work and personnel effectively. It involves the estimation of the demand for the supply of management staff for the organization in future. It is the involvement of efforts aimed at improving the quality as well as the number of management staff. Studies showed that many workers fail in organizational expectations because the training needs were not identified and provided for. Development may help to build confidence in the workers and make him work more efficiently and effectively.
2.7 ON-THE-JOB TRAINING
This is a widely accepted method of developing workers used by most organizations, according to Chim Obisi (1996:224), “old and experienced workmen perform much better in any organization when they undergo training and manpower development through on-the-job training programmes”.
The advantage of this method is that it creates good working relationship because employees get to know each other better and the working environment. On the other side, this method is disadvantageous in the sense that it could result to unorganized supervision, monotonous work and also using unqualified personnel for supervision when the qualified are undergoing the training.
On the job training could take the following forms:
· Training by experience workmen.
· Apprenticeship, which is the oldest method of training.
2.8 INFORMATION PRESENTATION METHOD
The aim is to impact the facts, theories, concepts, etc without actual practice. Examples of information presentation method are:
§ Conference method: This could be in form of a seminar programme where a small group are drawn from different organizations.
§ Classroom method: It can be used to reach a large crowd and it is usually two-way communication, where questions are asked and answered are received.
§ Programmed instruction: It is teaching aides such as cassettes, films, etc. This method is different from conventional form of training in which the trainer guides the process because the materials to be learned with is presented in a way the student can control.
§ Lecture method: This is a student institutional method used in colleges, polytechnics and universities. It is cheaper and has the ability to accommodate more students.
§ Simulation approach: People are trained on real life experience, i.e. problem that present itself on real life. Simulation approach could take demonstration or role-playing method.
§ Demonstration method: This explains to the trainee by teaching live with examples such as making displays. It is the actual showing matter than telling the trainee and that is why it is learning by seeing.
§ Role playing method: It is a technique in which some problems real or imaginary involving human interaction is presented and then spontaneously acted out.
2.9 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
This is used to help trainee acquire more skill usually in technical or commercial fields, where skills are acquired for performing a task. Vestibule training is a system of training sued when large number of people is to be trained on special machines or equipments.
2.10 THE NEED FOR MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
While reviewing discussions on the need for manpower planning and development we noted that while some people feel that money is the bedrock or business, some scholars stress the need for human resource planning and management as the main essence of organizational survival and growth.
Peter Drucker (1980:130) is of the opinion that since no one can foresee further, management cannot make actual and responsible decision unless it selects develop and test the men and women who will have to take care of these decisions.
Bawey (1977:23) emphasized that the most important factor underlying manpower planning is the understanding of human behaviour and the resulting social process. This goes to buttress how environmental influence affects the behaviour of workers which in turn affects the productivity.
Abel Ubeku (1975:34) feels that “forward looking” should be rule in every aspect of running a business. This is even more important when taking about adequate manpower and the right type of manpower especially in a country where technical and managerial skills are few. According to him, the days of unsystematic and intuitive improvement in the use of manpower has come to a close. He sees manpower planning as part of organization, which should not be seen in isolation but in the context of the growth of the organization. It covers more than simple planning of the manpower requirement of an organization since it hinges on all aspects of the business and concerned with the future.
2.11 MEANING OF PLANNING AND EVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
Corroborating the views of Ubeku, Oliver Ibekwe (1984:18) believed that a ‘forward looking’ plan ensures that the necessary human efforts to make possible survival and growth is available and entails manpower forecasting, which means gathering of data in relation to labour, evaluating the data then making predictions on the future eon the basis of the data.
Abel Ubeku (1975:46) recognized two stages in manpower planning:
Stage 1: This is concerned with the dictated manpower inventory of all types and level (unskilled, skilled, supervisory and managerial) employed throughout the period of the manpower plan.
Stage 2: This also concerns with manpower supply resources.
Consequently, Coleman (1970:86) views the process as being five (5) stages. First is determining the organizational objective and plan for the planning period. Secondly, is to determine the gross manpower requirement for the plan period. The third stage is taking manpower inventory or current in-house capability determination. The fourth stage defines the net manpower requirement for planning period. It is gotten from deducting the manpower inventory from the gross requirements. The fifth and final stage takes care of programming, meeting the next manpower requirement. This includes expansion contraction or internal adjustment of present workforce.
According to Richard Johnson (1989:74), the purpose of training and retraining in skill is to bring competency of individuals up the desired standard for present or potential assignments. He went further to assert that training helps the participants to improve performance in his/her activities. He gave reasons for the need to determine training:
Ø People will be more productive on the present jobs and ready for advancement.
Ø Because the success of the enterprise requires that every one perform at his optimum level, this call is part of determining and meeting the specific need of each, which should be translated into training.
Ø Because all good people regardless of organizational level can do a good job, want to do a good job and will do a good job, if they are given a chance.
This change come in part, though the provision of opportunities for a person to improve his knowledge, skill or attitudes. In doing this, the company increases productivity and the individual advances his career. Gain, steps must first be taken to determine valid training needs. Because time, money and efforts can be wasted through training that is not based on valid present or emerging needs.
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Bells, D.J. (1999): Planning Corporate Manpower, London: Longman Group Limited.
David, G.E. (2001): Techniques and Strategies in Personnel Management, London: Butter and Tanner Limited.
Drucker Peter (2004): Management Task Responsibilities Practice: Abridged and Revised Version, London: Pan Books.
Ibekwe Oliver (2004): “Manpower Planning and Economic Development in Nigeria: Some Issues of the Moment”, Nigeria Journal of Economic & Social Students Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1 of March, 2004.
Kempnet Thomas (2000): A Handbook of Management Burplay Suffolk, Richard Clay: The Chance Press Limited.
Margerson, C.J. and Ashtons, D. (2001): Planning for Human Resources, London: Longman Group Limited.
Normal Price (2002): “Performance Appraisal and the Organization Man”, The Journal of Business, Vol. 31, No. 9, January, 2002.
In order to appreciate its relevance, it is necessary to understand the subject matter, research and the method adopted in this study.
Research can be defined as the process of curving a dependable solution to problems through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
Osuala, E.C. (1987:2) saw research methodology as the overall strategy used by the researcher in collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of investigation of problems. However, the method to be used by any researcher depends on the purpose of the study, the nature of problem to be investigated. This research is designed to be both descriptive and empirical in value.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This research study was based mainly on the effect of training and manpower development in human resources management with particular reference to Intercontinental Bank Plc.
However, for the purpose of completely analysis, references were made to other banks in the industry when substantial evidence relating to the research study was offered. Some of these banks are First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Union Bank of Nigeria Plc and Zenith Bank Plc.
The period covered in the study extended from 2000 to 2003. the research study which is designed to be current in both descriptive and empirical in value. The descriptive aspect of it reinforces the behavioural pattern of workers in the organization, primarily, the behavioural pattern also includes the contribution for the trained personnel to the organizational goals, and the general impact of the training received in the organization.
The empirical analysis entails the various analysis of the data collected for the purpose testing and consequently accepting or rejecting the stated hypotheses.
The hypotheses of the study are stated in both Null and Alternate styles. The null hypotheses assume that there is no significant difference between the observed frequencies and the expected frequencies, while the alternate hypotheses assume that there is a significance difference. The acceptance of the null hypotheses (HO) automatically means the rejection of the alternate hypotheses (H1) and vice – versa.
In conclusion, therefore, the study does not only basically transcend the provision of information on the magnitude of training the personnel received, it also focuses on the various problems of training and development in the selected organizations.
3.3 SOURCE OF DATA
The data collected for the purpose of analysis and consequently testing of the formulated hypotheses were secondary data gathered from Intercontinental Bank Plc. The primary data were collected using oral personal interviews and simple questionnaires administered to the employees of the organization.
3.4 POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE
The entire number of employees in the banking industry constitute population of this study. The population boundary is fixed and described by the characteristics of individual members composing it as well as the nature of the variable being studied (Baridan 1990:74).
Given the fact that the relevant authorities such as the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC), Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) and the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) do not have reliable and current data regarding the population of employees in the banking industry. I faced a lot of difficulties of knowing the population for my chosen study. Hence the sample size used for the analysis was fifty (50).
3.4.1 SAMPLE TECHNIQUES
The techniques of sampling employed in the data collection is mainly random sampling. T his is adopted with the view to reducing the degree of bias and sidedness of the respondent’s opinion on the topic during the personal oral interview and the distribution of the questionnaires.
Secondly, to ensure that the views of both junior, middle and management personnel are well and adequately represented, cluster sampling techniques was used to complement the random sampling.
3.4.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The method of data analysis adopted in this study include the sample percentage and tabular presentation of the collected data. This is because various alternative explanatory variables that are not easily quantified were used. To reduce the problem of the quantification of the variables, attitudinal type measurement using Likert Scale used for the opinions supplied by the respondents.
To further test and accept or reject the formulated hypotheses, the Chi-Square distribution was employed. In this test, if the calculated values of the Chi-Square is greater than the table values at a given level of significance, the null hypotheses would be rejected and automatically accepting the alternative hypotheses and vice versa.
To ensure a high level of confidence is our test significance level of 0.0 and 0.05 were used.
A simple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship between the amount expended on training and development using the profit level as the index of the organization growth. In other words, the annual profit of the organization was used to determine the trained personnel’s contribution. Other contributions of the trained personnel such as public relations and efficiency are quite difficult to quantify, hence the choice of the annual profit level.
3.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Methods of data collection and analysis of data are limited by the following factors:
v The questionnaires given to the respondents were not treated as important documents and tools for a research work.
v Time constraint, a longer time would have allowed for greater explanation of facts.
v It was also difficult to retrieve the questionnaires from some the respondents.
v Some respondents were hostile to this researcher.
v Some of the respondents were reluctant to reveal some vital information which were termed official secrets.
Agbor Mike (2002): Statistics and Research Methodology: A Practical Approach, Lagos: Wile Ventures.
Baridam, D. M. (1990): Research Methods in Administrative Science, Port-Harcourt: belt Publishers.
Osuala, E. C. (2002): Introduction to Research Methodology, Onitsha: Africana-Feb Publishers Limited.
Ubeku, A. K. (2001): Personnel Management in Nigeria, Benin City: Ethiopia Publishing Corporation.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the data collected in a systematic way so as to facilitate verification and authenticity of the prepositions that were stated earlier on tests of the propositions will provide the much needed answers to the research questions and also form a basis of goods and reliable recommendations.
The primary objective of manpower training and development in Intercontinental Bank Plc as already elucidated upon is to impact positively effectiveness for optimum performance to achieve corporate goals of the bank.
Based on this, a questionnaire was designed to obtain the needed date. The response to the various questions is the questionnaires distributed were collected and analyzed.
Secondly, the secondary data collected were analyzed using the simple regression analysis.
4.1 ANALYSIS OF DATA
The responses to the questions in the questionnaires were analyzed. Firstly, the responses to the bio-data questions were dealt with before those questions in part B of the questionnaire.
The tables below show the responses of the respondents to the sex, age, marital status, distribution in the questionnaires. A total of fifty (50) questionnaires were duly completed and returned. The figure in the brackets shows the corresponding percentage of bio-data analysis of the respondents.
Table 1: Sex
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Source: Administered Questionnaire.
A cursory look at the table reveals that 34 of the respondents representing 68% were male while 16 respondents 32% were female.
Table 2: Age
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
21 – 30 years
31 – 40 years
41 – 50 years
51 and above
Source: Administered Questionnaire.
It also shows that 48% representing 24 out of the 30 employees sampled on 41 – 50 years of age, 32% representing the ages of 31 – 40 while 12% representing 6 are 50 years and above only 4 out of 50 employees representing 80% are between the ages of 21 and 30 years.
Table 3: Marital Status
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Source: Administered Questionnaire.
According to the table above, 12% of the respondents were single, 76% married, 4% widowed while 8% were divorced.
Table 4: Length of service
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
1 – 5 years
6 – 10 years
11 – 20 years
21 – 25 years
26 and above
Source: Research Survey, 2008.
From the table, the respondents to the questionnaires who served the bank for between 11 – 20 and 26 and above years were 24% representing 12 out of total 50 respondents. None of the respondents was less than 5 years of service. This shows that all respondents were experienced in the service.
Table 5: Position of respondents
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Source: Administered Questionnaire.
The table reveals that majority of the respondents were junior staff and this represents 60% of them were from the management level. 14% representing only 7 of the respondents were senior staff and 16% representing 8 out of the 50 respondents were from the middle level of management.
4.2 ANALYSIS OF SOME RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONS IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Some of the questions relating to the objectives of the study are analyzed herewith with a view to make viable recommendations
Table 6: Distribution of responses on how manpower needs of the bank is determined.
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Predictor of Human resource need
Human resource table within
Source: Administered Questionnaire.
Table 7: Distribution of responses whether it is essential to assess training and development programmes against performance.
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Source: Research Study Survey, 2006.
The table above shows that 76% of the total respondents representing 38 out of 50 respondents agreed that it is essential to assess training and manpower development programmes against performance.
The opinion was corroborated by Yusuf (1974) when he opined that employees’ performance is determined by the amount of training and development received.
Table 8: Distribution of respondents view on how they would recommend that every staff bet rained on the job.
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Source: Research Study Survey, 2006.
A cursory look at the table revealed that 34% of the respondents representing 17 out of the sampled 50 preferred workers to be trained by induction while 30% of the respondents representing 17 out of the sampled 50 preferred workers to be trained by induction while 30% of the respondents believed that workers should be trained on-the-job. 14% and 12% of the respondents suggested stimulation and seminars as mode of staff training and development respectively. Only 5 respondents out of the 50 respondents were of the view that employees of the bank should be trained and developed through conference programmes.
Table 9: Distribution of the respondents view on the benefits of internal courses organized by the bank and other courses within or outside the country.
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
It brings about grater confidence because it is customarized.
It enriches employees’ knowledge and increase performance skill.
It enhances corporate culture and attitude.
Experience and well-kitted staff are used as trainers.
It crates greater efficiency and effectiveness.
It increases productivity and leads to higher profitability.
Source: Research Study Survey, 2006.
It is the view of majority of the respondents internal and external courses bring about greater efficiency on the job as depicted by 28% of the respondents’ opinion. This is closely followed by those who think that it enriches employees’ knowledge and increase performance skills which indicated 20% while those who believe that it increased productivity and lead to higher profitability are 18% of the sampled opinion. Other responses are as indicated above but there is a consensus that there are benefits from internal and external courses.
4.3 TESTING OF THE HYPOTHESES
The various hypotheses earlier stated are to be tested here, the simple repression analysis technique and F-Test statistic will be used.
There is no direct relationship between manpower training and productivity are concept that cannot be easily quantified, and for the purpose of testing the hypothesis, the amount of money spent on staff is used to estimate the level of manpower training in the bank. Secondly, the profit realized by the bank is used to measure the resultant productivity of the employees.
In testing the hypothesis, therefore, a simple repression analysis technique is used on the secondary data collected on the amount of money spent and the profit realized by the bank for the period 1990 – 2006.
A model showing eth relationship between the variables are as follows:
Y = Profit after tax of the company.
X = Amount spent on the staff training.
A = Intercept of the repression equation representing the profit
after tax that does not depend on staff training.
B = Scope of the equation representing the rate of change of the
profit after tax resulting from change in the amount spent on staff training.
I = Years 1, 2, 3 to 7.
Table 10: Amount of money spent on staff and profit after tax (1990 – 2006)
Amount spent (N1000m)
Profit after tax (N1000m)
Source: Intercontinental Bank Plc, 2006 Annual Report.
The details result of the repression analysis using software package for social science (SPSS)( computer software is shown in appendix 3 and the relevant sector therefore is extracted here below:
Y = 132.882 + 18.9824
R = 0.968, R2 = 0.938, W = 8
SE = 250, 08, DW = 2.493
F(1.6) = 90.181x = 82.5x = 1133.25
From the result above, it shows that there is a positive relationship between the dependent variable suggesting that increasing/decreasing the amount of money spent on staff training will result in an increase/decrease respectively in the profit after tax of the bank. This is confirmed by the positive value of our 6 = 18.983 profit after tax realized by the bank.
The value of the intercept (9) = -432.832 shows that the bank will realize a negative profit after tax of N432.832 million if the bank does spend any money on staff training all other variable being held constant while the value of correlation co-efficient, R and R2 (coefficient of determination) are 0.968 and 0.9938 respectively shows that there is a very positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables. A 93.8% change in the amount of money spent on staff training.
The F-Test statistic of 90.181 shows that the repression equation is of good fit, while the mean of the dependent variable (Y) shows that the bank recorded an average profit after tax of N1,133.25 million the mean of the independent variable (X) shows that the bank spent a sum of N8,250 million of staff training within the period under review, i.e. (1990 – 2006).
In summary, the foregoing analysis shows that there is a very high positive correlation between the amount of money spent on staff training and profit of the organization hence hypothesis 7 is rejected, thus, indicating that a direct relationship exists between manpower training and productivity of the bank.
4.3.2 HYPOTHESIS 2
Lack of manpower training and development in the bank is not directly responsible for the high labour turnover in the bank.
Labour turnover is the rate at which an organization hires and fires employees. Labour turnover is said to be in an organization when the stay of an employee is short in the organization and vice-verse.
It is also argued that a staff trained and developed by an organization and a higher probability of staying longer with the organization. Testing the hypothesis empirically, relevant secondary data were collected from Intercontinental Bank Plc, on the number of staff employed and analyzed with repression analytical tool with the view to establish the relationship.
Thereafter, an inference will be drawn to determine whether lack of manpower training and development in the bank is not directly responsible for the high labour turnover in the bank.
The table below shows the total number of staff employed and trained in Intercontinental Bank Plc for the period 1990 – 2006.
Table 11: Total number of staff employed and number of staff trained in Intercontinental Bank of Nigeria Plc.
NO. OF STAFF EMPLOYED
NO. OF STAFF TRAINED
Source: Intercontinental Bank Plc Annual Report.
Model Specification 2
Y = 9 + bx
Y = Number of staff trained.
X = Number of staff employed.
A = Intercept of the repression line.
B = Slope of the repression line.
The detailed result of the repression analysis using software package for social science (SPSS) is shown in appendix four (4) extracted and summarized as follows:
Y = 9300 – 0.375x
= (5.09) (-2.354)
SE = 1827.24 0.159
R = 0.693, R2 = 0.480
DW = 2.099, F(1.6) = 5.541
Y = 5040.90, X = 11365.
The relationship between the number of staff employed (X) and the number of staff trained (Y) is expected prior to be positive but the result of the repression analysis from the model above shows that there is a negative relationship between the number of staff trained and those employed. This negative relationship between the dependent and independent variable can be explained by the restructuring, re-engineering and re-organization programmes being carried out in the bank. This is due to the recent technological development in the banking industry to cope with the current demand. For instance, in 1996, 4,081 staff of the bank were trained out of the total of 12,962 employed.
Meanwhile the coefficient of the independent variable X implies that 375 staff will be trained if 1,000 staff are employed. The recent increase in the number of staff trained could be also attributable to the importance of staff training and development in an organization.
The value of the (0.693) implies that there is a high relationship between the variables under study while the value R2 the coefficient of determination (0.480) shows that 48% variation in the number of staff trained is explained by the variation in the number of staff employed while the remaining 52% variation in staff training is due to other factors such as introduction of new technology not considered in the model.
The F-Test statistic shows that the repression equation is good fit since it is statistically significant at 0.05 level of confidence.
The mean of the staff trained within the period under review is 5040 while the mean of the staff employed in the bank with the same period is 11,365.
Meanwhile, the value of DW = 2099 shows that there was auto-correlation between the data in the time services based on the findings, it can be concluded that hypothesis 2 is rejected meaning that the number of staff trained is not directly related to the number of staff employed in the bank.
4.3.3 HYPOTHESIS 3
Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization. In testing this hypothesis, the responses to question 8 in the questionnaire were extracted and analyzed as shown in the table below. Question 8: What benefit(s) do you think the bank has derived from any development programme?
Table 12: The responses of the respondents to question 8
NO. OF RESPONSES
% OF RESPONSES
Industry leadership sustenance
Increased profitability arising from staff efficiency
Quick and efficient service to customer
Competitive edge over industry competitors
Eliminating of waste through competent job performance
Low laboru turnover
Gain government recognition as a responsible corporate citizen
Increase the network of organization human capital
From the above, the respondents emphasized on quick and efficient delivery to customers as a benefit on organization derives from development programmes as revealed by the 20% of the total responses. This is followed by increased productivity arising from staff efficiency with 16% of the total responses. Increase in the network of the organization’s human capital and competitive edge over industry competitors had 14% respectively of the responses. The gain government recognition as a responsible corporate citizen has the least responses of 2 out of the sampled 50, representing a 4% of the total responses.
Testing this further, the Chi-Square test distribution is used. The calculated value of the Chi-Square is obtained with the formula:
X2 = (oi – ei)2
X2 = Chi-Square.
Oi = Observed frequencies.
Ei = Expected frequencies.
O – E
(O – E)2
(O – E)2
The value of the calculated Chi-Square is 10.755.
DF = n, 1 = 9.1 = 8
The table value of the Chi-Square at both 0.05 levels of significance is 15.507 and 20.090 respectively.
Since the calculated value of the Chi-Square (X2) – 1.755 is less than the table value at both 0.05 and 0.01 respectively; I concluded that there is no significant difference in the responses thus accepting the hypothesis that training improves the productivity of employees and organizations. This is because all the alternatives in the question are all benefits to the organization and the employees.
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The objective of manpower and training development is to help yield operational results that will bring about meaningful changes in the output of a company. The study of the input of manpower and training development in the achievement of organizational goals in Intercontinental Bank Plc has moved to be useful and reasonable insight into the ideas, views and feelings of the employees about the organization.
The organization should realize that training does end with the initial orientation limited to retaining for new jobs or altered work. job should be constantly planned and people also trained.
Department is a management tool skillfully and systematically planned and executed to improve the performance of current and future employees. The aim is to develop, sharpen and thus change the employees’ attitude as well as increasing their knowledge and skill.
Intercontinental Bank Plc is one of the leading banks in the industry and has network of branches and over ten thousand members of staff. This is singular reason for the training and development of its staff to meet the challenges in the industry.
Actually, the research work came up when banking industry has a technological change and experience a lot of competition. This informs the right choice of the research topic. In carrying out the research, various method were adopted to achieve the desired goals.
Adrinfo (1980) in his contribution attributed the shortage of desired manpower in the banking industries to lack of appropriate and adequate training and education and insufficiency of training institutions and facilitation. In a paper titled “Manpower Development and Utilization in the Nigerian Banking Industry”, he identifies the role of manpower development as it affects the service being performed by the banks. He identified manpower shortage which he found out to partly due to the increasing manpower requirement resulting from rapid expansion of banking facilities and inadequate supply of trained personnel due to lack of institutions to turn out good graduates.
In recognition of this fact, the Intercontinental Bank Plc set a Training and Manpower Development Unit in the Personnel/Human Resources Department to constantly train its staff and develop a welfare packaged for the overall development of its staff. From the research, it was discovered that Intercontinental Bank Plc adopted various methods of manpower and t raining development. Among these are in-house training, seminars, conferences, orientation programmes and overseas training.
When workers are properly managed, trained and developed on the job, it reduces the amount of foreign exchange that is used in paying expatriates.
Changes in technologies and automation and the consequent effect they have on the existing skills and jobs have necessitated the need for the continuous training of the employees.
The effective management of human resources is very important to any organization which can only be achieved by effecting a good manpower planning policies and training programmes. The essence of this is to achieve the broader aims of the organization as well as satisfying the individual aim of developing oneself.
Training and manpower development is an important aspect of organization, management because it is a function that seeks to make available for the organization skills that are necessary for its functioning effectively and efficiently. Knowledge of the future requirement supply of labour is important especially where labour is reactively scarce, costly and skillful manpower development does not and with the initial orientation and induction of employee, nor is it to be limited to retaining few new job or attend work methods. Employees are constantly being training and retrained by the company.
Based on the analysis of data collected in the course of this research work, the researcher has the following recommendations with the view to reducing the problem of training and manpower development of the staff of the bank:
v As a result of importance of manpower planning and development, the training and development in the bank should not be for selected employees to the neglect of others. This is because it is possible for those regarded as high potential employees not to meet the predicted standard, while those initially neglected improves overtime. For example, the receptionists need to be trained on how to relate effectively with the large public and colleagues. The drivers represent the image of the bank while on the road, they should keep traffic laws and regulations. The security men must be alert to their duties and responsibility(ies) and should not embarrass or intimidate visitors and customers, etc.
v The researcher observed that customer services is a key area of interest, therefore, attention should be focus on this area during training to keep and maintain the (N25 billion) Central Bank of Nigeria requirement as paid-up capital base.
v As a result of importance of manpower planning and development, organizations should continue to encourage its staff to participate in training and development programmes.
v Based on the established positive relationship between training and organization’s performance vis-à-vis profit after tax, the bank should vote a reasonable proportion of its profits to training and development of its employees.
v The bank should expand, upgrade and equip all its satellites training centres for maximum benefit and utilization.
v Though the bank provides external training for their trainers, it is necessary to bring in external training consultants to the training centres occasionally to improve the quality of the programme.
v Another area that needs attention is the promotion policy of the bank. It was observed that there are no clear criteria for promotion to higher posts especially in relation to junior staff cadre even after their training programme. It is necessary to prevent prejudices in recommendations for promotion and enable the staff to know requirement for advancement, there should be uniform promotion in all branches and departments as the same criteria will be used.
v The bank should make efforts to evaluate its training at the end of each course. The present evaluation is not comprehensive enough. And on the job follow up programmes should be developed to enable the staff of training section of human resource department monitor, assess and quantify the effectiveness of those courses.
v Course related jobs should be assigned to the employees after training as the bank cannot deploy a trained staff to area that will not enable the staff to use his required skills.
It is my candid belief that if all above recommendations are properly implemented to latter, the problems of training and development in the banking industry would be solved and its attainment benefit would be realized. This will continue to make the organization to be “Happy Customers, Happy People”.
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This questionnaire is made up of two (2) sections A and B. Section A is the personal data relating to the respondents, while Section B is the main body relating to the major variables in the research topic. You are required to tick X or √ in the appropriate box provided and write briefly your opinion(s) in the space provided.
SECTION A: PERSONAL DATA:
1. Sex of respondents:
Male [ ]
Female [ ]
21 – 30 years [ ]
31 – 40 years [ ]
41 – 50 years [ ]
51 and above [ ]
3. Marital Status:
Single [ ]
Married [ ]
Divorced [ ]
Widowed [ ]
4. Length of service with organization:
1 – 5 years [ ]
6 – 10 years [ ]
11 – 20 years [ ]
21 – 25 years [ ]
30 and above [ ]
5. Educational background:
WASC [ ]
OND/NCE/Other Diploma [ ]
B.Sc./B.A./HND [ ]
Higher Degree in M.Sc/MA/MBA [ ]
Professional qualification [ ]
6. Current position in the organization:
Junior staff [ ]
Senior staff [ ]
Middle management [ ]
Management level [ ]
1. What are some of the services provided by your organization (Bank)?
2. Do the management encourage any self-development programmes?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
3. What form of development do the management recommended for its employees?
On-the-job training [ ]
Seminars [ ]
Simulations [ ]
Conferences [ ]
Induction [ ]
4. Does the organization especially the personnel department review its training programmes?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
5. Have you attended any training development since the assumption of duty in the organization?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
6. Has the training development programme attended affected your performance in your job?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
7. If yes, state briefly how the training programme affected your performance.
8. What benefits do you think the organization has derived from any development programme sponsored?
Industry leadership sustenance [ ]
Increased profitability arising from staff efficiency [ ]
Quick and efficient service delivery to customers [ ]
Rapid expansion [ ]
Low labour turnover [ ]
9. How is the manpower need of the organization determined?
Predictor of human resources need [ ]
Trend analysis [ ]
Human resources available within [ ]
Others (Please specify): _______________________________________
10. Has training influenced your desire to stay in the company?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
11. Are there any social and personal benefit resulting from training?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
12. If yes, briefly state the social and personal benefits
13. In your opinion, which of those element(s) is/are lacking in the organization?
Good working condition [ ]
Better salaries/wages [ ]
Opportunity for promotion [ ]
Job recognition and achievement [ ]
Opportunity for further training [ ]
None of the above [ ]
14. Are you encouraged to develop yourself?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
15. State why and how if Yes or No.