Monday, August 25, 2008

Effect of Training and Manpower Development on Productivity of Workers

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization, these factors include: capital, equipment, manpower, etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.

Manpower planning aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, it becomes imperative to develop the employee.

Manpower development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. Manpower development is important in any discussion of strategic human resources management.

These emphasis on manpower and development is influenced by the belief that it is now desirable to focus more attention on areas which in the past has been relatively neglected because every organization regardless of its size must provide for the needs, interest and desire of its employee within the work environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete effectively.

Since the early 1960, the human factor of production of manpower as it is alternatively called, has increasable been recognized as the most critical resource of the factors without which an effective utilization of all other factors remain a dream. Although, it might to tempting to attach more importance to the availability of physical resource such as capital and equipment undermining that they are mere passive factors of production, which depend on human intellectual which is the active agent to exploit them in order to achieve the objective of the organization. Thus, the human factors (manpower) is the main stay of the organization.

In other words, the success of an organization depends on the ability and expertise of those who operate it both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such abilities and expertise usually stems from the knowledge they possess and training received.

According to Harbison, F.H. (1973), human being constitutes the ultimate basis of a nation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the organization, which implies that with daily increase and complexity in the organizational activities and the problem ensuring optimum productivity which is fast becoming a challenge as well as imperative for the management of organization, thus, training and development of staff on whom the huge responsibility of furthering these goals rest, must take top priority if the organization must continue to enjoy maximum performance from the staff.

The main objective of setting up a company is to make profit and to achieve this organizational goal, adequate manpower planning and development programmes should be put in place to enhance performance.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals.

However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well-defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes.

The very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing functions do so with lack of seriousness; all round attention and continuity. The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue moon but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation. As a result of this, lackadaisical attitude of management towards training and manpower development. There had been a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that attend the over unfolding new dispensation in the industry, in the circumstance, what we find is that the rise in industrial output is inconsequential in spite of the enormous wave of modern technology that now exist in industrial activities.

It is the opinion of industry observes that the poor performance of the organization-workers follows from their inability to keep abreast with the new technological current as a result of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training. It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of performance training and development on organizational performance of this mission, however, the researcher used Intercontinental Bank Plc as a reference.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with quality of the selection and interview procedure?

2. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with the placement and promotion procedure?

3. Are there training programmes for the employees?

4. How adequate in terms of content and relevance, are these training progammes relevant?

5. Has the promotion process in the bank improved employees’ performance?

6. Are the employees of the bank utilized after their training?

1.4 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
v To conduct an empirical investigation through a review of the manpower planning and development policy of the bank.

v To access the staff recruitment, selection and training programmes and from it, establish some relationship between these programmes and problems enumerated.

v To highlight the need for manpower planning and development in the company.

v To identify some techniques of manpower training and development in the company and their relevance to the company needs and the industry at large.

v To establish the relationship between personnel training and development and staff performance.

v To correct the belief that in this age of computerization and technological development, all that business units need to survive in the acquisition of up-to-date capital equipment to the neglects of the power management of its human resources.

v To proffer solutions to the identified problems.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The testable hypotheses of this research study are the following:
HO: There is no direct relationship between manpower training and productivity in the bank.
H1: There is direct relationship between the manpower training and productivity.

HO: Lack of adequate manpower training and development is not directly responsible for high labour turnover.
H1: Adequate manpower and development is directly responsible for higher labour turnover.

HO: Training does not the productivity of employees and the organization.
H1: Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Banking services constitute the backbone of the economy of a great country like Nigeria; no wonder it is always the most active sector in stock exchange. It is upon this premise that government monitors the activities of the banks through the Central Bank of Nigeria and provides the necessary infrastructures for optimum services to the public.

In spite of all efforts geared towards improving the services of that banking industry, there are some doubts as to the quality of services rendered by the banks to its customers in particular and the nation in general. It is in light of this that the researcher through the work intend to look into the factors militating against Intercontinental Bank Plc in achieving its sets objectives, by this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of the Intercontinental Bank Plc and assess their suitability with the aim of developing training programmes to enhance their performance since the progress of an organization is a function of the quality of those directing its affairs. The importance of this cannot be overemphasized especially in these periods when most companies are international standard complaint. It therefore behooves a company to plan and train its workers for the best quality of work to be relevant in the scheme of globalization.

This is particularly directed to establishment that are prone to think that the intractable problems of their organization is finance and not manpower planning and development it will also evaluate aspects of the recruitment, selection and training process, which bear strong relevance to corporate image, productivity efficiency and morals.

For the management of Intercontinental Bank Plc, the benefit of training and development is that quality of work, life of the employees will reciprocate with increase performance on the job.

This will go a long way in providing job satisfaction and services as motivation towards the realization of individual aspiration, it will also be relevant to the human resource development department in the formulation of policies relating to training and development of personnel and for the government, to ensure adequate training and know-how to improve the economy as a whole.

1.7 LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Intercontinental Bank Plc was selected for this study. The coverage may give time representation of selection practice in the government owned enterprises in the economy and the organized private sector.

The study was also limited to employees of the bank. The problems, the researcher encountered was that some officers were either too busy for interviews or cleverly avoided certain questions for the fear that the information given might put their jobs in jeopardy. Those who responding to questions tends to make their answers to reflect what ought to be rather that what is, this undoubtedly affected the quality and accuracy of information collected during the study.

A large population of the staff falls among the junior staff and as such, it is difficult to really get their opinion as regards manpower development as they are shy to respond and do not really appreciate the importance of development. A lot of finance was also required in making this project a reality, thus, the researcher was faced with the problem of finance and time.

These difficulties notwithstanding the researcher made concert efforts to ensure that the project was comprehensively carried out to meet the desired needs.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effects were made at defining the following terminologies use din this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.
Ø Development: This is the process concerned with people’s capacity in a defined and over a period to manage and involve positive change, and reduce or eliminate unwanted change.

Ø Manpower: The human resource of a business concern. These include unskilled, skilled supervisory and management staff of a company.

Ø Planning: Setting objectives and deciding on the best ways of achieving the objectives.

Ø Empirical: Of people or method guided only by practical experience rather than by scientific ideas.

REFERENCES

Adeyemo Aderinto: “Interstate Mobility of High-Level Manpower: Implication for Achieving Even Development in Nigeria”, The Nigeria Journal of Development Studies.

Ashton, D. Margerson, C.J. (2000): Planning for Human Resources, London: Longman Group Limited.

Bruce, F. (2004): An Interpreted System of Manpower Planning, New York: McGraw Hill Books Company.

Diejemoah, V.P. (2001): Development of Manpower in Nigeria, Ibadan: University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Graham, H.T. (2001): Human Resource Management, London: M & E Handbook, McDonald and Evans Limited.


CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION
A long time ago, in the history of management, it dawned on social scientist that for an organization to survive and succeed, an effective workforce is required. This obviously that specialists are needed to handle the resource of the organization to maximize returns.

Scientists such as Robert Owen and Elton Mayol were popular for their interest in the betterment of the lives of employees and productivity in general. The aim of the project among others is to answer the questions about whether training and learning within an organization could be productive or not and this have sparked the interest in examining prevalent but often inconsistent assumption about what constitutes training within an organization. If training is productive, it must be systematically planned and executed.

2.2 MANPOWER PLANNING
Most writers have concerned themselves essentially within putting forward arguments for and against the very idea of manpower planning and development in organizations. Some other writers have emphasized the need for manpower planning and how to ensure increased efficiency and productivity through the use of manpower plans and development programmes.

Thomas Kempwer (1971:13) sees manpower planning as the name given to the drawing up of different types that the company will require over a period of years. He believes that once a company has developed a long-range strategy (corporate planning), it become possible to estimate the number of people of all types and categories that may be required over the following years.

Olusola Aina (1992:68) defined manpower planning or human resource planning as a possible for determining and assuring that an organization will have, adequate number of skilled and experienced person available at the right time and place performing jobs which meet the needs of the organization and which provides satisfaction for the workers involved. Manpower planning in providing adequate number of skilled workers is expected to provide job satisfaction to those workers in return.

Ubeku Abel (1975:25) defined manpower planning as part of organizational planning. He observed that it should therefore be seen not in isolation but in the total context of the growth of the organization. According to him, manpower planning covers much than simple planning the future manpower requirements of an organization since it hinges on all aspects of the business.

This approach goes beyond mere consideration of supply but is not specific on what other aspects of business manpower hinges on. It also comes with the impression that the only concrete matter it deals with is future supply of manpower.

Oliver Ibekwe (1984:19), asserted that human resources of a business are collectively known as manpower which could be unskilled, skilled, supervisory staff and it is aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the job at the right time.

David Quest et al (1969) sees manpower planning as an effort to integrate through personnel policies and planning the various personnel activities such as recruitment, training, management development, payment and industrial relations.

2.3 TRAINING
Training according to Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary states that training is the process of preparing somebody or being prepared for job. In manpower development, training is therefore an indispensable element and at the same time, a vehicle for development and planning.

According to Stemetz et al (1969:68), training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge skilled for a definite period. Thus, training is technically oriented. It is designed to improve the technical and mechanical skill of personnel. Training therefore are usually designed for both non-managerial and managerial staff.

Dorman Price (1975:572), emphasized the role of training in management activity especially in the area of human resources management. according to him, the training function is a management activity in which the personnel department provides the necessary specialist knowledge and usually carries out in addition to the administrative requirements so that the function operates effectively within the organization. He went further to state the basic stages in establishing a training function with the view to improving on the manpower development.

These stages are:
Ø To find out the training needs of the particular needs of the particular company at all levels.
Ø To formulate a training policy which will meet the needs of the organization.
Ø To evaluate the resources both financial and material which could be required.
Ø To provide the necessary specialist training officers who will be responsible for implementing both the training policy and the training plan.

A training need can be said to exist when there is a gap between the existing performance of an employee (or group of employees), and the desired performance to assess whether such a gap requires a skill analysis. The analysis has five stages:
v To analyze and determine the main requirements of the particular job.
v To identify they task required to be undertaken to meet the job requirements.
v To understand the procedures required to perform the task.
v To analyze the knowledge and skill required to perform the processes.
v To identify and specify problems of the job and to analyze any particular skill required to solve the problem.

But if we consider a situation where not training function exists in the organization, the skills analysis should be undertaken initially of these jobs or areas, which appears to present the most urgent training needs and this can be followed up by a skill analysis of all jobs when the training function has been established.

2.4 DEVELOPMENT
Development generally means the process of causing somebody or something to grow or making something to become larger gradually. But in relation to manpower development can be seen as a process of increasing the quality or value or skill of an employee (personnel).

From the definition, it can be sent that training facilitates manpower development and consequently his performance. Manpower training and manpower development are two inter-related processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any decision of strategic human resource management. they are related tot eh series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capacity.

In this view of Chanokan, J.S. (1987:204), manpower development refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in the employees as a result of educating and training programmes. He says that development is managerial in nature and career focused. To distinguish training and development, Chanokan has this to day, “that unlike the training, the workers which improves technical and mechanical skills, development techniques are designed for work behaviour modification”. According to him, development is an educational process, utilizing a systematic organizational procedure by which a worker learns the conceptual and theoretical knowledge for effective pursuance of their responsibilities.

2.5 DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING
The reason for manpower planning and development, it is important to say a little about development. As jobs are becoming more and more complex, it becomes imperative for employers of labour to train their workers unlike when jobs were simple and little technical knowledge was required from the workers.

Manpower training and development are two interrelated processes whose importance cannot be overemphasized in any discussion of strategic human resource management. this related to the series of activities, which an enterprise would need to embark upon to improve the quality of its managerial capital.

Manpower development has been described as the systematic process which an organization has to go through to ensure that it has the effective managers it requires to meet its present and future needs.

According to De Philips et al (1964:8), training is a process when under company auspices seeks a planned, coordinated and conscious manner to develop in the employees those understanding skill and attitude, which will maximize individual’s present and future efficiency and effectiveness of the overall company operations.

2.6 TYPES OF TRAINING AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
There are many types of training and manpower development programmes available. The particular method chosen by a company can be influenced by considering cost and time available, number of persons to be trained, depth of knowledge required, background of the trainee, etc.

Manpower development is a systematic process of training and growth by which individuals gain and apply knowledge, skill, insights and attitude, manage work and personnel effectively. It involves the estimation of the demand for the supply of management staff for the organization in future. It is the involvement of efforts aimed at improving the quality as well as the number of management staff. Studies showed that many workers fail in organizational expectations because the training needs were not identified and provided for. Development may help to build confidence in the workers and make him work more efficiently and effectively.

2.7 ON-THE-JOB TRAINING
This is a widely accepted method of developing workers used by most organizations, according to Chim Obisi (1996:224), “old and experienced workmen perform much better in any organization when they undergo training and manpower development through on-the-job training programmes”.

The advantage of this method is that it creates good working relationship because employees get to know each other better and the working environment. On the other side, this method is disadvantageous in the sense that it could result to unorganized supervision, monotonous work and also using unqualified personnel for supervision when the qualified are undergoing the training.

On the job training could take the following forms:
· Training by experience workmen.
· Apprenticeship, which is the oldest method of training.

2.8 INFORMATION PRESENTATION METHOD
The aim is to impact the facts, theories, concepts, etc without actual practice. Examples of information presentation method are:
§ Conference method: This could be in form of a seminar programme where a small group are drawn from different organizations.

§ Classroom method: It can be used to reach a large crowd and it is usually two-way communication, where questions are asked and answered are received.

§ Programmed instruction: It is teaching aides such as cassettes, films, etc. This method is different from conventional form of training in which the trainer guides the process because the materials to be learned with is presented in a way the student can control.

§ Lecture method: This is a student institutional method used in colleges, polytechnics and universities. It is cheaper and has the ability to accommodate more students.

§ Simulation approach: People are trained on real life experience, i.e. problem that present itself on real life. Simulation approach could take demonstration or role-playing method.

§ Demonstration method: This explains to the trainee by teaching live with examples such as making displays. It is the actual showing matter than telling the trainee and that is why it is learning by seeing.

§ Role playing method: It is a technique in which some problems real or imaginary involving human interaction is presented and then spontaneously acted out.

2.9 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
This is used to help trainee acquire more skill usually in technical or commercial fields, where skills are acquired for performing a task. Vestibule training is a system of training sued when large number of people is to be trained on special machines or equipments.

2.10 THE NEED FOR MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
While reviewing discussions on the need for manpower planning and development we noted that while some people feel that money is the bedrock or business, some scholars stress the need for human resource planning and management as the main essence of organizational survival and growth.

Peter Drucker (1980:130) is of the opinion that since no one can foresee further, management cannot make actual and responsible decision unless it selects develop and test the men and women who will have to take care of these decisions.

Bawey (1977:23) emphasized that the most important factor underlying manpower planning is the understanding of human behaviour and the resulting social process. This goes to buttress how environmental influence affects the behaviour of workers which in turn affects the productivity.

Abel Ubeku (1975:34) feels that “forward looking” should be rule in every aspect of running a business. This is even more important when taking about adequate manpower and the right type of manpower especially in a country where technical and managerial skills are few. According to him, the days of unsystematic and intuitive improvement in the use of manpower has come to a close. He sees manpower planning as part of organization, which should not be seen in isolation but in the context of the growth of the organization. It covers more than simple planning of the manpower requirement of an organization since it hinges on all aspects of the business and concerned with the future.

2.11 MEANING OF PLANNING AND EVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
Corroborating the views of Ubeku, Oliver Ibekwe (1984:18) believed that a ‘forward looking’ plan ensures that the necessary human efforts to make possible survival and growth is available and entails manpower forecasting, which means gathering of data in relation to labour, evaluating the data then making predictions on the future eon the basis of the data.

Abel Ubeku (1975:46) recognized two stages in manpower planning:
Stage 1: This is concerned with the dictated manpower inventory of all types and level (unskilled, skilled, supervisory and managerial) employed throughout the period of the manpower plan.

Stage 2: This also concerns with manpower supply resources.

Consequently, Coleman (1970:86) views the process as being five (5) stages. First is determining the organizational objective and plan for the planning period. Secondly, is to determine the gross manpower requirement for the plan period. The third stage is taking manpower inventory or current in-house capability determination. The fourth stage defines the net manpower requirement for planning period. It is gotten from deducting the manpower inventory from the gross requirements. The fifth and final stage takes care of programming, meeting the next manpower requirement. This includes expansion contraction or internal adjustment of present workforce.

According to Richard Johnson (1989:74), the purpose of training and retraining in skill is to bring competency of individuals up the desired standard for present or potential assignments. He went further to assert that training helps the participants to improve performance in his/her activities. He gave reasons for the need to determine training:
Ø People will be more productive on the present jobs and ready for advancement.

Ø Because the success of the enterprise requires that every one perform at his optimum level, this call is part of determining and meeting the specific need of each, which should be translated into training.

Ø Because all good people regardless of organizational level can do a good job, want to do a good job and will do a good job, if they are given a chance.

This change come in part, though the provision of opportunities for a person to improve his knowledge, skill or attitudes. In doing this, the company increases productivity and the individual advances his career. Gain, steps must first be taken to determine valid training needs. Because time, money and efforts can be wasted through training that is not based on valid present or emerging needs.


REFERENCES

Aina, O. (2000): Personnel Management in Nigeria, Lagos: Pacific Printers.

Bells, D.J. (1999): Planning Corporate Manpower, London: Longman Group Limited.

David, G.E. (2001): Techniques and Strategies in Personnel Management, London: Butter and Tanner Limited.

Drucker Peter (2004): Management Task Responsibilities Practice: Abridged and Revised Version, London: Pan Books.

Ibekwe Oliver (2004): “Manpower Planning and Economic Development in Nigeria: Some Issues of the Moment”, Nigeria Journal of Economic & Social Students Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1 of March, 2004.

Kempnet Thomas (2000): A Handbook of Management Burplay Suffolk, Richard Clay: The Chance Press Limited.

Margerson, C.J. and Ashtons, D. (2001): Planning for Human Resources, London: Longman Group Limited.

Normal Price (2002): “Performance Appraisal and the Organization Man”, The Journal of Business, Vol. 31, No. 9, January, 2002.


CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION
In order to appreciate its relevance, it is necessary to understand the subject matter, research and the method adopted in this study.

Research can be defined as the process of curving a dependable solution to problems through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.

Osuala, E.C. (1987:2) saw research methodology as the overall strategy used by the researcher in collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of investigation of problems. However, the method to be used by any researcher depends on the purpose of the study, the nature of problem to be investigated. This research is designed to be both descriptive and empirical in value.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This research study was based mainly on the effect of training and manpower development in human resources management with particular reference to Intercontinental Bank Plc.

However, for the purpose of completely analysis, references were made to other banks in the industry when substantial evidence relating to the research study was offered. Some of these banks are First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Union Bank of Nigeria Plc and Zenith Bank Plc.

The period covered in the study extended from 2000 to 2003. the research study which is designed to be current in both descriptive and empirical in value. The descriptive aspect of it reinforces the behavioural pattern of workers in the organization, primarily, the behavioural pattern also includes the contribution for the trained personnel to the organizational goals, and the general impact of the training received in the organization.

The empirical analysis entails the various analysis of the data collected for the purpose testing and consequently accepting or rejecting the stated hypotheses.

The hypotheses of the study are stated in both Null and Alternate styles. The null hypotheses assume that there is no significant difference between the observed frequencies and the expected frequencies, while the alternate hypotheses assume that there is a significance difference. The acceptance of the null hypotheses (HO) automatically means the rejection of the alternate hypotheses (H1) and vice – versa.

In conclusion, therefore, the study does not only basically transcend the provision of information on the magnitude of training the personnel received, it also focuses on the various problems of training and development in the selected organizations.

3.3 SOURCE OF DATA
The data collected for the purpose of analysis and consequently testing of the formulated hypotheses were secondary data gathered from Intercontinental Bank Plc. The primary data were collected using oral personal interviews and simple questionnaires administered to the employees of the organization.

3.4 POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE
The entire number of employees in the banking industry constitute population of this study. The population boundary is fixed and described by the characteristics of individual members composing it as well as the nature of the variable being studied (Baridan 1990:74).

Given the fact that the relevant authorities such as the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC), Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) and the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) do not have reliable and current data regarding the population of employees in the banking industry. I faced a lot of difficulties of knowing the population for my chosen study. Hence the sample size used for the analysis was fifty (50).

3.4.1 SAMPLE TECHNIQUES
The techniques of sampling employed in the data collection is mainly random sampling. T his is adopted with the view to reducing the degree of bias and sidedness of the respondent’s opinion on the topic during the personal oral interview and the distribution of the questionnaires.

Secondly, to ensure that the views of both junior, middle and management personnel are well and adequately represented, cluster sampling techniques was used to complement the random sampling.

3.4.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The method of data analysis adopted in this study include the sample percentage and tabular presentation of the collected data. This is because various alternative explanatory variables that are not easily quantified were used. To reduce the problem of the quantification of the variables, attitudinal type measurement using Likert Scale used for the opinions supplied by the respondents.

To further test and accept or reject the formulated hypotheses, the Chi-Square distribution was employed. In this test, if the calculated values of the Chi-Square is greater than the table values at a given level of significance, the null hypotheses would be rejected and automatically accepting the alternative hypotheses and vice versa.

To ensure a high level of confidence is our test significance level of 0.0 and 0.05 were used.

A simple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship between the amount expended on training and development using the profit level as the index of the organization growth. In other words, the annual profit of the organization was used to determine the trained personnel’s contribution. Other contributions of the trained personnel such as public relations and efficiency are quite difficult to quantify, hence the choice of the annual profit level.

3.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Methods of data collection and analysis of data are limited by the following factors:
v The questionnaires given to the respondents were not treated as important documents and tools for a research work.

v Time constraint, a longer time would have allowed for greater explanation of facts.

v It was also difficult to retrieve the questionnaires from some the respondents.

v Some respondents were hostile to this researcher.

v Some of the respondents were reluctant to reveal some vital information which were termed official secrets.

REFERENCES

Agbor Mike (2002): Statistics and Research Methodology: A Practical Approach, Lagos: Wile Ventures.

Baridam, D. M. (1990): Research Methods in Administrative Science, Port-Harcourt: belt Publishers.

Osuala, E. C. (2002): Introduction to Research Methodology, Onitsha: Africana-Feb Publishers Limited.

Ubeku, A. K. (2001): Personnel Management in Nigeria, Benin City: Ethiopia Publishing Corporation.


CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the data collected in a systematic way so as to facilitate verification and authenticity of the prepositions that were stated earlier on tests of the propositions will provide the much needed answers to the research questions and also form a basis of goods and reliable recommendations.

The primary objective of manpower training and development in Intercontinental Bank Plc as already elucidated upon is to impact positively effectiveness for optimum performance to achieve corporate goals of the bank.

Based on this, a questionnaire was designed to obtain the needed date. The response to the various questions is the questionnaires distributed were collected and analyzed.

Secondly, the secondary data collected were analyzed using the simple regression analysis.

4.1 ANALYSIS OF DATA
The responses to the questions in the questionnaires were analyzed. Firstly, the responses to the bio-data questions were dealt with before those questions in part B of the questionnaire.

The tables below show the responses of the respondents to the sex, age, marital status, distribution in the questionnaires. A total of fifty (50) questionnaires were duly completed and returned. The figure in the brackets shows the corresponding percentage of bio-data analysis of the respondents.

Table 1: Sex
VARIABLES
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Male
Female
34
16
68
32
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Administered Questionnaire.

A cursory look at the table reveals that 34 of the respondents representing 68% were male while 16 respondents 32% were female.

Table 2: Age
VARIABLES
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
21 – 30 years
31 – 40 years
41 – 50 years
51 and above
4
16
24
6
80
32
48
12
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Administered Questionnaire.

It also shows that 48% representing 24 out of the 30 employees sampled on 41 – 50 years of age, 32% representing the ages of 31 – 40 while 12% representing 6 are 50 years and above only 4 out of 50 employees representing 80% are between the ages of 21 and 30 years.

Table 3: Marital Status
VARIABLES
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Single
Married
Widowed
Divorced
6
38
2
4
12
76
4
8
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Administered Questionnaire.

According to the table above, 12% of the respondents were single, 76% married, 4% widowed while 8% were divorced.

Table 4: Length of service
VARIABLES
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
1 – 5 years
6 – 10 years
11 – 20 years
21 – 25 years
26 and above
Nil
6
16
12
16
Nil
12
32
24
32
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Research Survey, 2008.

From the table, the respondents to the questionnaires who served the bank for between 11 – 20 and 26 and above years were 24% representing 12 out of total 50 respondents. None of the respondents was less than 5 years of service. This shows that all respondents were experienced in the service.

Table 5: Position of respondents
VARIABLES
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Junior Staff
Senior Staff
Middle Mgt.
Management
30
7
8
5
60
14
16
10
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Administered Questionnaire.

The table reveals that majority of the respondents were junior staff and this represents 60% of them were from the management level. 14% representing only 7 of the respondents were senior staff and 16% representing 8 out of the 50 respondents were from the middle level of management.

4.2 ANALYSIS OF SOME RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONS IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Some of the questions relating to the objectives of the study are analyzed herewith with a view to make viable recommendations

Table 6: Distribution of responses on how manpower needs of the bank is determined.
OPINION
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Predictor of Human resource need
Trend
Human resource table within
Others (specify)
13
9
27
1
26
18
54
2
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Administered Questionnaire.

Table 7: Distribution of responses whether it is essential to assess training and development programmes against performance.
OPINION
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
Yes
No
38
12
76
24
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Research Study Survey, 2006.

The table above shows that 76% of the total respondents representing 38 out of 50 respondents agreed that it is essential to assess training and manpower development programmes against performance.

The opinion was corroborated by Yusuf (1974) when he opined that employees’ performance is determined by the amount of training and development received.

Table 8: Distribution of respondents view on how they would recommend that every staff bet rained on the job.
OPINION
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
On-the-Job
Stimulation
Induction
Conference
Seminars
15
7
17
5
6
3014
34
1012
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Research Study Survey, 2006.

A cursory look at the table revealed that 34% of the respondents representing 17 out of the sampled 50 preferred workers to be trained by induction while 30% of the respondents representing 17 out of the sampled 50 preferred workers to be trained by induction while 30% of the respondents believed that workers should be trained on-the-job. 14% and 12% of the respondents suggested stimulation and seminars as mode of staff training and development respectively. Only 5 respondents out of the 50 respondents were of the view that employees of the bank should be trained and developed through conference programmes.

Table 9: Distribution of the respondents view on the benefits of internal courses organized by the bank and other courses within or outside the country.
OPINION
NO. OF RESPONDENTS
% OF RESPONDENTS
It brings about grater confidence because it is customarized.
It enriches employees’ knowledge and increase performance skill.
It enhances corporate culture and attitude.
Experience and well-kitted staff are used as trainers.
It crates greater efficiency and effectiveness.
It increases productivity and leads to higher profitability.

5


10

2

7

14

9

10


20

4

14

28

18
TOTAL
50
100
Source: Research Study Survey, 2006.

It is the view of majority of the respondents internal and external courses bring about greater efficiency on the job as depicted by 28% of the respondents’ opinion. This is closely followed by those who think that it enriches employees’ knowledge and increase performance skills which indicated 20% while those who believe that it increased productivity and lead to higher profitability are 18% of the sampled opinion. Other responses are as indicated above but there is a consensus that there are benefits from internal and external courses.


4.3 TESTING OF THE HYPOTHESES
The various hypotheses earlier stated are to be tested here, the simple repression analysis technique and F-Test statistic will be used.

4.3.1 HYPOTHESES
There is no direct relationship between manpower training and productivity are concept that cannot be easily quantified, and for the purpose of testing the hypothesis, the amount of money spent on staff is used to estimate the level of manpower training in the bank. Secondly, the profit realized by the bank is used to measure the resultant productivity of the employees.

In testing the hypothesis, therefore, a simple repression analysis technique is used on the secondary data collected on the amount of money spent and the profit realized by the bank for the period 1990 – 2006.

A model showing eth relationship between the variables are as follows:
Y = Profit after tax of the company.
X = Amount spent on the staff training.
A = Intercept of the repression equation representing the profit
after tax that does not depend on staff training.
B = Scope of the equation representing the rate of change of the
profit after tax resulting from change in the amount spent on staff training.
I = Years 1, 2, 3 to 7.


Table 10: Amount of money spent on staff and profit after tax (1990 – 2006)
YEAR
1990
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Amount spent (N1000m)
Profit after tax (N1000m)
44
346
49
392
46
420
62
575
61
1,142
110
1,297
130
1,924
168
2,970
Source: Intercontinental Bank Plc, 2006 Annual Report.

The details result of the repression analysis using software package for social science (SPSS)( computer software is shown in appendix 3 and the relevant sector therefore is extracted here below:
Y = 132.882 + 18.9824
R = 0.968, R2 = 0.938, W = 8
SE = 250, 08, DW = 2.493
F(1.6) = 90.181x = 82.5x = 1133.25

From the result above, it shows that there is a positive relationship between the dependent variable suggesting that increasing/decreasing the amount of money spent on staff training will result in an increase/decrease respectively in the profit after tax of the bank. This is confirmed by the positive value of our 6 = 18.983 profit after tax realized by the bank.

The value of the intercept (9) = -432.832 shows that the bank will realize a negative profit after tax of N432.832 million if the bank does spend any money on staff training all other variable being held constant while the value of correlation co-efficient, R and R2 (coefficient of determination) are 0.968 and 0.9938 respectively shows that there is a very positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables. A 93.8% change in the amount of money spent on staff training.

The F-Test statistic of 90.181 shows that the repression equation is of good fit, while the mean of the dependent variable (Y) shows that the bank recorded an average profit after tax of N1,133.25 million the mean of the independent variable (X) shows that the bank spent a sum of N8,250 million of staff training within the period under review, i.e. (1990 – 2006).

In summary, the foregoing analysis shows that there is a very high positive correlation between the amount of money spent on staff training and profit of the organization hence hypothesis 7 is rejected, thus, indicating that a direct relationship exists between manpower training and productivity of the bank.

4.3.2 HYPOTHESIS 2
Lack of manpower training and development in the bank is not directly responsible for the high labour turnover in the bank.

Labour turnover is the rate at which an organization hires and fires employees. Labour turnover is said to be in an organization when the stay of an employee is short in the organization and vice-verse.

It is also argued that a staff trained and developed by an organization and a higher probability of staying longer with the organization. Testing the hypothesis empirically, relevant secondary data were collected from Intercontinental Bank Plc, on the number of staff employed and analyzed with repression analytical tool with the view to establish the relationship.

Thereafter, an inference will be drawn to determine whether lack of manpower training and development in the bank is not directly responsible for the high labour turnover in the bank.

The table below shows the total number of staff employed and trained in Intercontinental Bank Plc for the period 1990 – 2006.

Table 11: Total number of staff employed and number of staff trained in Intercontinental Bank of Nigeria Plc.
YEAR
NO. OF STAFF EMPLOYED
NO. OF STAFF TRAINED
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
12,962
12,820
12,325
12,136
11,752
11,456
8,911
8,560
4,081
4,482
4,319
5,173
5,807
4,560
4,934
6,883
Source: Intercontinental Bank Plc Annual Report.

Model Specification 2
Y = 9 + bx

Where:
Y = Number of staff trained.
X = Number of staff employed.
A = Intercept of the repression line.
B = Slope of the repression line.

The detailed result of the repression analysis using software package for social science (SPSS) is shown in appendix four (4) extracted and summarized as follows:
Y = 9300 – 0.375x
= (5.09) (-2.354)
SE = 1827.24 0.159
R = 0.693, R2 = 0.480
DW = 2.099, F(1.6) = 5.541
Y = 5040.90, X = 11365.

The relationship between the number of staff employed (X) and the number of staff trained (Y) is expected prior to be positive but the result of the repression analysis from the model above shows that there is a negative relationship between the number of staff trained and those employed. This negative relationship between the dependent and independent variable can be explained by the restructuring, re-engineering and re-organization programmes being carried out in the bank. This is due to the recent technological development in the banking industry to cope with the current demand. For instance, in 1996, 4,081 staff of the bank were trained out of the total of 12,962 employed.

Meanwhile the coefficient of the independent variable X implies that 375 staff will be trained if 1,000 staff are employed. The recent increase in the number of staff trained could be also attributable to the importance of staff training and development in an organization.

The value of the (0.693) implies that there is a high relationship between the variables under study while the value R2 the coefficient of determination (0.480) shows that 48% variation in the number of staff trained is explained by the variation in the number of staff employed while the remaining 52% variation in staff training is due to other factors such as introduction of new technology not considered in the model.

The F-Test statistic shows that the repression equation is good fit since it is statistically significant at 0.05 level of confidence.

The mean of the staff trained within the period under review is 5040 while the mean of the staff employed in the bank with the same period is 11,365.

Meanwhile, the value of DW = 2099 shows that there was auto-correlation between the data in the time services based on the findings, it can be concluded that hypothesis 2 is rejected meaning that the number of staff trained is not directly related to the number of staff employed in the bank.

4.3.3 HYPOTHESIS 3
Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization. In testing this hypothesis, the responses to question 8 in the questionnaire were extracted and analyzed as shown in the table below. Question 8: What benefit(s) do you think the bank has derived from any development programme?

Table 12: The responses of the respondents to question 8
ALTERNATIVE
NO. OF RESPONSES
% OF RESPONSES
Industry leadership sustenance
4
8
Increased profitability arising from staff efficiency

8

15
Quick and efficient service to customer
10
20
Competitive edge over industry competitors

7

14
Eliminating of waste through competent job performance
6
12
Low laboru turnover
2
4
Rapid expansion

4

8
Gain government recognition as a responsible corporate citizen

2

4
Increase the network of organization human capital

7

14

From the above, the respondents emphasized on quick and efficient delivery to customers as a benefit on organization derives from development programmes as revealed by the 20% of the total responses. This is followed by increased productivity arising from staff efficiency with 16% of the total responses. Increase in the network of the organization’s human capital and competitive edge over industry competitors had 14% respectively of the responses. The gain government recognition as a responsible corporate citizen has the least responses of 2 out of the sampled 50, representing a 4% of the total responses.

Testing this further, the Chi-Square test distribution is used. The calculated value of the Chi-Square is obtained with the formula:
X2 = (oi – ei)2
Ei

Where:
X2 = Chi-Square.
Oi = Observed frequencies.
Ei = Expected frequencies.

O
E
O – E
(O – E)2
(O – E)2
E
4
8
10
7
6
2
4
2
7
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
-0.6
2.4
4.4
1.4
0.4
-3.6
-1.6
-3.6
1.4
2.56
5.76
19.36
1.9
0.36
12.96
2.56
12.96
1.96
0.457
1.027
3.457
0.350
0.029
2.314
0.457
2.314
0.350

10.755

The value of the calculated Chi-Square is 10.755.

DF = n, 1 = 9.1 = 8

The table value of the Chi-Square at both 0.05 levels of significance is 15.507 and 20.090 respectively.

Since the calculated value of the Chi-Square (X2) – 1.755 is less than the table value at both 0.05 and 0.01 respectively; I concluded that there is no significant difference in the responses thus accepting the hypothesis that training improves the productivity of employees and organizations. This is because all the alternatives in the question are all benefits to the organization and the employees.


REFERENCES

Agbor Mike (2002); Statistics and Research Methodology: A Practical Approach, Lagos: Nile Ventures.

Alpha C. Cliang (1998): Fundamental Methods of Mathematics Economics, Singapore: McGraw Hills Books Company.

Asika Nnamdi (2004): Research Methodology in the Behavioural Science, Ikeja: Longman Nigeria Plc.

Lucey T. (1996): Quantitative Techniques, London: DP Publications.

Osuala E.C. (2000): Introduction to Research Methodology, Onitsha: Africana-Feb Publishers Limited.

Fagbohungbe, O.B. (2003): Research Methods.

Fagbohungbe, O.B. and Longe (1993): Basic Psychology and Sociology. Ogunoike, O.O. (1990): Statistics Unpublished.
CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 SUMMARY
The objective of manpower and training development is to help yield operational results that will bring about meaningful changes in the output of a company. The study of the input of manpower and training development in the achievement of organizational goals in Intercontinental Bank Plc has moved to be useful and reasonable insight into the ideas, views and feelings of the employees about the organization.

The organization should realize that training does end with the initial orientation limited to retaining for new jobs or altered work. job should be constantly planned and people also trained.

Department is a management tool skillfully and systematically planned and executed to improve the performance of current and future employees. The aim is to develop, sharpen and thus change the employees’ attitude as well as increasing their knowledge and skill.

Intercontinental Bank Plc is one of the leading banks in the industry and has network of branches and over ten thousand members of staff. This is singular reason for the training and development of its staff to meet the challenges in the industry.

Actually, the research work came up when banking industry has a technological change and experience a lot of competition. This informs the right choice of the research topic. In carrying out the research, various method were adopted to achieve the desired goals.

Adrinfo (1980) in his contribution attributed the shortage of desired manpower in the banking industries to lack of appropriate and adequate training and education and insufficiency of training institutions and facilitation. In a paper titled “Manpower Development and Utilization in the Nigerian Banking Industry”, he identifies the role of manpower development as it affects the service being performed by the banks. He identified manpower shortage which he found out to partly due to the increasing manpower requirement resulting from rapid expansion of banking facilities and inadequate supply of trained personnel due to lack of institutions to turn out good graduates.

In recognition of this fact, the Intercontinental Bank Plc set a Training and Manpower Development Unit in the Personnel/Human Resources Department to constantly train its staff and develop a welfare packaged for the overall development of its staff. From the research, it was discovered that Intercontinental Bank Plc adopted various methods of manpower and t raining development. Among these are in-house training, seminars, conferences, orientation programmes and overseas training.

5.2 CONCLUSION
When workers are properly managed, trained and developed on the job, it reduces the amount of foreign exchange that is used in paying expatriates.

Changes in technologies and automation and the consequent effect they have on the existing skills and jobs have necessitated the need for the continuous training of the employees.

The effective management of human resources is very important to any organization which can only be achieved by effecting a good manpower planning policies and training programmes. The essence of this is to achieve the broader aims of the organization as well as satisfying the individual aim of developing oneself.

Training and manpower development is an important aspect of organization, management because it is a function that seeks to make available for the organization skills that are necessary for its functioning effectively and efficiently. Knowledge of the future requirement supply of labour is important especially where labour is reactively scarce, costly and skillful manpower development does not and with the initial orientation and induction of employee, nor is it to be limited to retaining few new job or attend work methods. Employees are constantly being training and retrained by the company.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the analysis of data collected in the course of this research work, the researcher has the following recommendations with the view to reducing the problem of training and manpower development of the staff of the bank:
v As a result of importance of manpower planning and development, the training and development in the bank should not be for selected employees to the neglect of others. This is because it is possible for those regarded as high potential employees not to meet the predicted standard, while those initially neglected improves overtime. For example, the receptionists need to be trained on how to relate effectively with the large public and colleagues. The drivers represent the image of the bank while on the road, they should keep traffic laws and regulations. The security men must be alert to their duties and responsibility(ies) and should not embarrass or intimidate visitors and customers, etc.

v The researcher observed that customer services is a key area of interest, therefore, attention should be focus on this area during training to keep and maintain the (N25 billion) Central Bank of Nigeria requirement as paid-up capital base.

v As a result of importance of manpower planning and development, organizations should continue to encourage its staff to participate in training and development programmes.

v Based on the established positive relationship between training and organization’s performance vis-à-vis profit after tax, the bank should vote a reasonable proportion of its profits to training and development of its employees.

v The bank should expand, upgrade and equip all its satellites training centres for maximum benefit and utilization.

v Though the bank provides external training for their trainers, it is necessary to bring in external training consultants to the training centres occasionally to improve the quality of the programme.

v Another area that needs attention is the promotion policy of the bank. It was observed that there are no clear criteria for promotion to higher posts especially in relation to junior staff cadre even after their training programme. It is necessary to prevent prejudices in recommendations for promotion and enable the staff to know requirement for advancement, there should be uniform promotion in all branches and departments as the same criteria will be used.

v The bank should make efforts to evaluate its training at the end of each course. The present evaluation is not comprehensive enough. And on the job follow up programmes should be developed to enable the staff of training section of human resource department monitor, assess and quantify the effectiveness of those courses.

v Course related jobs should be assigned to the employees after training as the bank cannot deploy a trained staff to area that will not enable the staff to use his required skills.

It is my candid belief that if all above recommendations are properly implemented to latter, the problems of training and development in the banking industry would be solved and its attainment benefit would be realized. This will continue to make the organization to be “Happy Customers, Happy People”.

REFERENCES


Aderinto Adeyemo (2000): “Interstate Mobility of Higher Level Manpower”, The Nigerian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 1 of April, pages 23 – 36.

Deijemioah, V.P. (1998): Development of Manpower in Nigeria, Ibadan, University of Ibadan.

Nwachukwu, C.C. (2000): Personal Administration: A Practical Approach, Benin City: Ethiope Publishing Corporation.

Ubeku, A. K. (2002): Personnel Management in Nigeria, Benin City: Ethiope Publishing Corporation.

Water Leonard (2001): Corporate Human Development: An Introduction, New York: McGraw Hill Books Company.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Amital Etrioni (1998): Modern Organization, New Delhi: Printice Hall of India, Pinnale Limited.

Del, D. J: Planning Corporate Manpower, London: Longman Group Limited.

Bruce F. Coleman (2001): An Integrate System of Manpower Planning, New York: McGraw Hill Books Company.

David Quest and Terence Kenny (2003): Techniques and Strategies in Personnel Management, London: Butter and Tanner Limited.

Delphilips Frank et al (2002): Management of Training Programme, Prentice hall Industries Inc.

Diegemaoh, V. P. (2001): Development Manpower in Nigeria, Ibadan: University of Ibadan Press.

Drucker, P. F. (2001): Management Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, Abridged and Revised Version, Ibadan: Pan Books.


QUESTIONNAIRE

This questionnaire is made up of two (2) sections A and B. Section A is the personal data relating to the respondents, while Section B is the main body relating to the major variables in the research topic. You are required to tick X or √ in the appropriate box provided and write briefly your opinion(s) in the space provided.

SECTION A: PERSONAL DATA:
1. Sex of respondents:
Male [ ]
Female [ ]

2. Age:
21 – 30 years [ ]
31 – 40 years [ ]
41 – 50 years [ ]
51 and above [ ]

3. Marital Status:
Single [ ]
Married [ ]
Divorced [ ]
Widowed [ ]

4. Length of service with organization:
1 – 5 years [ ]
6 – 10 years [ ]
11 – 20 years [ ]
21 – 25 years [ ]
30 and above [ ]

5. Educational background:
WASC [ ]
OND/NCE/Other Diploma [ ]
B.Sc./B.A./HND [ ]
Higher Degree in M.Sc/MA/MBA [ ]
Professional qualification [ ]

6. Current position in the organization:
Junior staff [ ]
Senior staff [ ]
Middle management [ ]
Management level [ ]

SECTION B:

1. What are some of the services provided by your organization (Bank)?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Do the management encourage any self-development programmes?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

3. What form of development do the management recommended for its employees?
On-the-job training [ ]
Seminars [ ]
Simulations [ ]
Conferences [ ]
Induction [ ]

4. Does the organization especially the personnel department review its training programmes?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

5. Have you attended any training development since the assumption of duty in the organization?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

6. Has the training development programme attended affected your performance in your job?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

7. If yes, state briefly how the training programme affected your performance.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8. What benefits do you think the organization has derived from any development programme sponsored?
Industry leadership sustenance [ ]
Increased profitability arising from staff efficiency [ ]
Quick and efficient service delivery to customers [ ]
Rapid expansion [ ]
Low labour turnover [ ]

9. How is the manpower need of the organization determined?
Predictor of human resources need [ ]
Trend analysis [ ]
Human resources available within [ ]
Others (Please specify): _______________________________________

10. Has training influenced your desire to stay in the company?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

11. Are there any social and personal benefit resulting from training?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

12. If yes, briefly state the social and personal benefits
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13. In your opinion, which of those element(s) is/are lacking in the organization?
Good working condition [ ]
Better salaries/wages [ ]
Opportunity for promotion [ ]
Job recognition and achievement [ ]
Opportunity for further training [ ]
None of the above [ ]

14. Are you encouraged to develop yourself?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

15. State why and how if Yes or No.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________















[A CASE STUDY OF INTERCONTINENTAL BANK PLC]


BY

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Motivation is concerned with why people do what they do. It answers such questions as why do managers or workers got o work and do a good job. This tries to explain what motivates people to act the way they do, with primary focus on the work place. It is the primary task of the manager to create and maintain an environment in which employees can work efficiently to realize the objectives of the organization.

Employees differ not only in their ability to work but also in their will to do so (motivation). To motivate is to induce, persuade, stimulate, even compel, an employee to act in a manner which fulfills the objectives of an organization. The motivation of employees depends on the strength of their motives. Motives are needs, wants, drives, or impulses within the individual, and these determine human behaviour.

Motivation then is the process of:
v Arousing behaviour.
v Sustaining behaviour in progress, and
v Channeling behaviour into a specific course of action.

Thus, motives (needs, desires) induce employees to act. Motivation, therefore, is the inner state that energies, channels, and sustains human behaviour.

Since it has been established that all behaviour except involving responses are goals directed, manager can apply motivational theories of management in their attempt to direct the job behaviour of employees towards the goal of their establishment.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Workers leave organization due to the fact that they are not motivated enough. Some are not willing to leave because they are enjoying some benefit in terms of promotion which leads to increase in salaries and wages, bonuses and some other incentives.

Organizations must improve the work performance, productivity, skills and ability of its employees. The problem is how to motivate workers to achieving higher productivity.

1.3 RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Some of the research questions are:
1. To what extent does the personnel policy implemented by your company affect your productivity?

2. How often does the company embark on staff training and development?

3. Does your company clearly/respect trade union position of its employees?

4. Are there differences in the way staff and workers are t4eated in the organization?

5. Is joint consultation practiced positively, as a method of obtaining employees views on problems and proposed charges before final decisions are taken?

1.4 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The research hypotheses are:
Hypothesis I:
HO: The more there is effective motivation, the less the morale of employees.
H1: The more there is effective motivation, the more the moral of employees.

Hypothesis II:
HO: Adoption of motivational techniques will automatically decrease the workers productivity.
H1: Adoption of motivational techniques will automatically increase the workers productivity.

Hypothesis III:
HO: the success of an organization does not depend on the motivational procedures being adopted.
H1: The success of an organization depends on the motivational procedures being adopted.

1.5 PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study is to ascertain the motivational activities of Intercontinental bank Plc.
a. To ascertain the application of the motivational techniques by the organization concerned.

b. To know the problem inhibiting the success of the employees’ motivation in the organization.

c. To know the response of the employees to motivational techniques adopted by the organization.

d. To provide solutions and recommendations where necessary on the best and effective motivational techniques used in the organization.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This project covers the aspect of motivation in persuading, stimulating and compelling an employee to act in a manner which fulfills the objectives of the organization.

One cannot but say that data collection is the most tedious of writing the project.

Another limitation is that the researcher being a student who has to read other courses as well as to take normal lectures during the period of the research may be limited by time given for the study being too short.

Lastly, the fund constraint in carrying out this research project, the cost of getting materials and information as well as their adequacies will also constitute the limitation of the study.

1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study cannot be over-emphasized. It will be base don the examination of the motivation practice in Intercontinental Bank Plc, and to know the extent to which it is being carried out, the effects on the workers, the organization and the country at large. Moreso, to acquaint the various managers and different categories of employees to the need to embrace motivation which will go along way in achieving higher productivity.

Besides, those students in the field of administration will find it educative, interesting and challenging in that, the various activities and techniques of motivation are revealed and logically analyzed.

Lastly, this project will be of value to those who may want to carry out similar research in the nearest future.

1.9 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF INTERCONTINENTAL BANK PLC
Intercontinental Bank Plc came into existence in March, 1989 as a product of the partnership between some visionary and dynamic Nigerian businessmen, to provide innovative and customer-focused products and services that will satisfy the publics’ growing need for sophisticated banking services. Since its inception then a s Nigerian Intercontinental Merchant Bank Limited, the bank has been providing a wide array of products and services covering investment banking, retail and funds management.

Since its debut in t eh commercial banking field, Intercontinental Bank Plc has pursued an aggressive branch network expansion programme. As at March, 2005, the Bank has 63 branches making it sixth largest bank in the country in terms of network.

A socially responsible organization, Intercontinental Bank maintains a long-standing policy of corporate responsibility to the communities in which it operates, and has made impact in the areas of public health and education.

In July, 1991, the Bank converted to a commercial bank and later obtained a Universal Banking License to avail many more customers of its unique products and services as well as tap into other market opportunities in the Nigerian economy. Following a resolution of the Board in October, 2001, the Bank changed to a Public Limited Liability Company in June, 2002 and followed it up in July same year with an Initial Public Offering (IPO). The capitalization of the Bank was further boosted with N3.58 billion being proceeds of the IPO and by mid 2004, the Bank’s shareholders’ funds had grown to N10 billion before the new minimum capital base of N25 billion was set by the regulators. Consequently, the Bank returned to the capital market and raised new funds totaling N22.4 billion thereby growing its shareholders’ fund to N34.7 billion. The Bank’s shares are listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE).

1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Motivation: This is the process of arousing behaviour, sustaining behaviour in progress, and channeling behaviour into a specific course of action.

Management: This is the process of getting things done through people. It involves planning, organizing, staff, directing, coordinating and controlling both human and material resources for the purpose of achieving a set goal.

Responsibility: This is the subordinate’s obligation to perform a duty which has been assigned to him.

Leadership: Is a process of using non-coercive influence to direct and coordinate the activities of group members towards goals’ accomplishment.

Manager: Is one who performs the functions of management (planning, organizing, staffing, etc) and occupiers a formal position in an organization.

Organization: This has to do with determination and provision of capital, material, equipment and personnel that may be required in an enterprise in order to achieve the set goals.

Organizational Structure: This is the established pattern of relationships among the components of the organization.

Organizational Chart: It is a diagram that shows the arrangement, positions and interrelationship of various component parts of company.

Employee: This is a person who is paid to work for an organization or business enterprise.

Behaviour: Is the manner that someone, an animal, a plant etc do thing sin a particular way.

Department: Any of the division or unit of a government, business, school or college and so on.

Employees’ Services: This is the maintaining of the general welfare of employees on the job and assisting with problems related to their security and personal wellbeing e.g. medical services and insurance protection.



REFERENCES

Ajayi Nelson (1991): Managerial Planning and Control, Ibadan: U.I. Press Limited.

Akintunde, A.D. (2005): How to Motivate Workers to Achieve Higher Productivity, Unpublished ND Business Studies Polytechnic Ibadan, Oyo State.

Donely Gibson (1984): Fundamental of Management Plan, New York: Texas Business Company.

Intercontinental Bank Plc (2005): Annual Report and Accounts.

Kolawole, E.O. (2002): The Effectiveness of Auditor Report on Management Decision-Making of Some Selected Companies in the Insurance Industry, Unpublished B.Sc. Accounting University of Ado, Ekiti, David Binders & partners, Lagos.
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Business organization exists to produce goods and services, which they hope to exchange for money to maximize profit. In the pursuit of these defined objectives, the organization procures resources and processed them into output. Of the resources acquired, the human factor has been described as the most significant because if not properly managed, it can deliberately retard organizational effectiveness.

Evidence abounds to attest to the fact that all employees do not exert the same effort towards organizational goals or in other words, some employees achieve better results than others.

To achieve results, employees will exhibit the required job behaviour. The dilemma that managers face in today’s business is how they could get employees to exhibit the required job behaviour in the work place. Since it has been established that all behaviours except involuntary responses are goals directed, managers can apply motivational theories of management in their attempt to direct the job behaviour of employees towards the goal of their establishment.

2.2 MODELS AND THEORIES ON MOTIVATION
A number of concepts have been established to explain the phenomenon of human motivation. It is useful to classify these concepts into two broad categories, which are: Content theories and Process theories.

CONTENT THEORIES
These emphasized reason for motivated behaviour and or what causes it. They explain behaviour in terms of specific ‘needs’ or ‘motive’ (the two terms used interchangeably here). Content theories help to represent physiological or psychological deficiencies that an individual feels some compulsion to eliminate. Some of the major content theories are:
v Hierarchy of needs - Abraham Maslow
v ERG - Clayton Alderfer
v Two Factor Theory - Fredrick Hertzberg
v Learned Needs Theory - David McClelland.

a. HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
In 1943, Abraham Maslow in a seminar paper titled, “A Theory of Human Motivation” proposed that a person’s motivational needs could be arranged in a hierarchical order. Inherent in this hierarchical order of needs is that once a given level of need is satisfied, it no longer serves to motivate rather the next higher level of need has to be activated in order to motivate the individual. Maslow identifies five levels of needs, which are:
Ø Physiological Needs: These are the basic human needs to sustain life as food, clothing, and shelter. Until these basic needs are satisfied to the degree needed, needs for the sufficient operation of the body, the majority of a person activity will probably be a t this level and other needs will provide little or no motivation. But once the physiological needs have been satisfied, other levels of needs become important and these motivate and dominate the behaviour of the individual.

Ø Safety or Security Needs: These needs are essential, the desire to be free of the fear of physical danger and the deprivation of the basic physiological needs. This is a need for self-preservation and the concern for the future. If an individual’s safety or security need is in danger, other things seem unimportant. Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. “The whole organism may become a safety-seeking organism”. Yet, as it is true of the physiological needs, once these safety needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate.

Ø Social or Affiliation Need: In the original version of Maslow’s theory, he used the word “Love” to describe the need for attention and affiliation. This however has been modified by the post Maslow theorist for the word love may include sexual relationship, which is a physiological need. Social need include the need to belong and be accepted by people, this also means belongingness, acceptance and friendship.

Ø Esteem Needs: The esteem needs represents self-esteem and recognition from others. The satisfaction of these needs produces feelings of self-confidence, prestige, power and control. People being to feel that they are useful and have some effect on their environment.

Ø Self-Actualization: This is the need to maximize one’s potential whatever, it may be as Maslow expressed it, “What a man be, he must be”. It is also the desire to become what one is capable of becoming. These needs as presented by Maslow can be arranged in a hierarchy presented below.
Self
Actualization
Esteem
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs

Higher Needs




Lower Needs

Source: Cherington, D.J. Organizational Behaviour,
2nd Edition, Mass Allyn and Bacon, 1994:136 (Adapted)

b. THE ERG THEORY OF MOTIVATION
The ERG Theory propounded by Clayton Alderfer is indeed a reaction of Maslow’s Theory. He argued that there are three core needs which he classified as “Existence, Relatedness and Growth” (ERG).

The Existence need has to do with the satisfaction of our basic material requirements such as food, water, pay and working conditions, they can be classified as physiological and safety needs.

The relatedness need is similar to the social role needs of Maslow’s Theory and this includes social and interpersonal relationship.

Finally, the Growth needs are intrinsic desire for personal development or making creative productive contribution.

Furthermore, Alderfer argued that if the gratification of a higher-level order need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower level need increase i.e. frustration, regression and dimension. In other words, if a person fails to satisfy a higher-level need, he/she moves back to a lower-level need, which then acts as a motivating force.

This frustration – regressive – dimension can be illustrated below.
Frustration of
Growth Needs
Importance of Growth Needs
Satisfaction of Growth Needs
Frustration of
Relatedness Existence
Importance of Relatedness Needs
Satisfaction of Relatedness Needs
Frustration of
Existence Needs
Importance of Existence Needs
Satisfaction of Existence Needs








Source: Gibson Ivancevich and Donnelly 1997, Organizational Irwin. McGraw Hill, Boston.

c. LEARNED NEEDS THEORY
David McClelland proposed learned needs of motivation, which according to him is associated with learning concepts. He identified three needs that motivate people. these are:
The need for achievements.
The need for affiliation.
The need for power.

The need for achievement: This is the need/desire to set challenging goals, work to achieve the goals or the drive to excel in relation to set standards. The need for achievement is defined by the following desires, “to accomplish something difficult: to master, manipulate or organize physical objects human beings or ideas. To rival and surpass others. To increase self-regard by the successful exercise of talent.

The need for affiliation: This is the need to be liked and accepted by others. People with the need strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive situations and desire relationship involving a high degree of mutual understanding. People with a high need for affiliation prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationship, joining groups, etc. individual with a high degree of this need are not effective managers or leaders because they will find it difficult to make decisions without worrying about the feeling of others or being disliked by others.

The need for power: This is the dislike to have impact, to be influence and to control others. They also have the desire to coach, teach or encourage others to achieve, they love to work and are concerned with discipline and self-respect. The need for power has both negative and positive sides. The negative side is manifested in a winner’s takes all mentality e.g. “if I win, you lose”. The positive side is focused on accomplishing group goals and helping others obtain the feeling of competence.

PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
These are theories that describe and analyzed how behaviour is energized, directed, sustained and stopped. While it is true that people work in order to satisfy their needs, some employees want to work and do good job and in some case, employees may exhibit effort beyond the level where the reward surpassed their need. It is therefore the duty of management to provide an environment that facilitates high-level of performance. Because at this point, what motivates the employee is not the desire to satisfy their needs but rather factors in the environment. This is the basis of the process theories of motivation.

Three of the process theories of motivation will be discussed here, these are:
· Goal setting theory.
· Expectancy theory.
· Equity theory.

a. Goal Setting Theory: This theory was propounded by Edwin Locke (1968)
Directing One’s
Attention
Regulating One’s Effort
Increasing One’s Performance
Encouraging of the Development of Goal Attainment Strategies of Action Plan

Goals Motivate the Individual
By -------------------
Task Performance










A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance.

According to the above model proposed by Locke, goals setting have four motivational mechanisms:
a. Goals Direct Attention: behaviours are goal-oriented. Goals that are personally meaningful tend to focus one’s attention on what is relevant and important. This is because the perceived outcome of such behaviour is desired and cherished by the person exhibiting the behaviour.

b. Goals Regulate Effort: The level of effort exhibited is proportionate to the difficulty of the goal. In other words, a goal that appears difficult to attain will elicit a greater effort if personally desired. On the other hand, easily attained goals will require little efforts.

c. Goals Increase Persistence: Persistence here means the effort expended on a task over an extended period of time. In the pursuance of an objective or a goal, difficulties may arise, there is always the tendency for people to abandon the pursuit of this goal or objective where they are not personally involved in the setting of the goal. On the contrary, when people are involve din the goal setting process, they are likely t o persist in their effort towards attaining the goals.

d. Goals Foster Strategies and Action Plans: Setting of goals or stating performance standard is the first step towards attaining these goals. However, it is important to ask the question, “How are the goals going to be achieved?” When goals are set, it encourages people going to be achieved. When goals are set, it encourages people to develop strategies and action plans that will enable them achieve the goals.

VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
In 1964, Victor Vroom proposed an Expectancy Theory of Motivation in which he defined motivation as a process governing choice among alternative form of voluntary activity.

To understand the individual’s choice of voluntary activities, it is important to first appreciate certain concepts that are embedded in the expectancy theory. These concepts are:
Ø Outcome: This is the result of doing a particular thing. The outcome can be first level or second level. The first level outcomes are the product of behaviour associated with doing the job such as productivity and absenteeism, while the second level outcomes are the product of the first level outcome, which include punishment and reward.

Ø Instrumentality: This is the individual perception or belief that the first level outcome is associated with the second level outcome. Instrumentality ranges from – 1 to + 1.

-1 Instrumentality is the perception that attainment of second level outcome is certain without the first level outcome and that second level outcome is impossible with first level outcome.

+1 instrumentality is the perception that first level outcome is necessary and sufficient for the second level outcome to occur.

0 Instrumentality is the perception that there is no linkage between first level and second level outcomes.

Ø Valence: This is the preference for outcome. Among the second level outcomes which of them do the student for example prefer? Does the student desire an A,B,C,D,E, or F score in the examination or a first class, second class upper, second class lower, third class or pass?

Ø Expectancy: This refers to the individual belief concerning the likelihood or subjective probability that a particular behaviour will be followed by a particular outcome. That is an exhibited behaviour can elicit a particular outcome. Expectancy ranges from 0 to + 1.

O Expectancy: This implies that there is no chance of the occurrence of an outcome after the behaviour.

+1 Expectancy: This implies that the outcome will certainly follow the behaviour.

Ø Force (M): This is equated to motivation. The intent of expectancy theory is to assess the magnitude and direction of all the forces acting on the individual. The act associated with the greatest force is most likely to occur.

Ø Ability (A): This refers to a person’s potential for doing a job. Ability could be physical or mental.

Vroom used a mathematical equation to integrate these concepts into a predictive model of motivational force. Expectancy theory is therefore based on the following principles:

V = E (V2 x I) i.e. the valence associated with t he various first level outcome is a sum of the multiplication of valences (V2) attached to all second level outcomes with their respective instrumentality (I).

(2) M = F (VI x E): Motivation is a multiplicative of the valences for each first level outcome (VI) and the perceived expectancy (E) that a given behaviour w ill be followed by a particular first level outcome. If expectancy is low, there will be low motivation.

(3) P = F (M x A): The performance of a job is a multiplicative function of motivation (forces) and ability.

EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
The equity theory of motivation developed by Stacey Adams holds that individuals who work in exchange for rewards from organization are motivated by a desire to be equitably treated at work. Four importance components are involve din the equity theory. These are:
v Person: The individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived.

v Comparison other: Any individual or group used by person as a referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes.

v Inputs: These are the individual characteristics brought to the job by the person. These inputs are the factors the individual considers when making equity comparison. They include:
§ Time
§ Education/training.
§ Experience
§ Skills.
§ Creativity.
§ Seriously.
§ Age
§ Personality trait.
§ Effort expended
§ Personal appearance.

v Outcomes: These are what a person receives from the job or what he/she gets in exchange with his/her inputs. Factors to be considered under outcome when making equity comparism include:
§ Pay/bonuses.
§ Fring benefit.
§ Challenging assignment.
§ Job security.
§ Career advancement.
§ Status symbols.
§ Pleasant/safe working environment.
§ Opportunity for personal growth/development.

FREDERICK HERTZBERG – HYGIENE THEORY
His approach is similar to that of Maslow though more practical. He has broken motivation into two. The hygiene/disatisfier and the motivators/satisfier. The lower level needs are identified as Hygiene factors and t eh higher level needs are motivators. Security need and the social needs while the higher-level needs comprise the ego/esteem needs and the self-actualization needs.

Hygiene factors are those absence of which cause dissatisfaction and indifference when present e.g. salary, working condition, inter-personal relation supervision company policy and administration. Motivators are those the absence of which does not demotivate workers while the presence really motivate them e.g. Responsibility, career growth and advancement, achievement recognition and job enrichment.

HENRY L. GANTT (TASK AND BONUS SYSTEM)
He was a contemporary of Taylor in the management movement. Gantt was one of the first to give major attention to human relations in industry – particularly humanizing management science, as distinguished from Taylor’s emphasis on financial incentives. Well, Gantt’s first original contribution to management science was his concept of the “Task and Bonus” system of wage payment, which differed from Taylor’s piece rate system in that Gantt believed that scientific management should entail the study of problems according to the scientific methods, moreso these tasks or incentives to motivate. According to him, when these are accomplished, efficiency will be enhanced.

Another notable contribution of Gantt in this movement is the fact that he stressed the point that the training of workers should be the sole responsibility of management. This is evidently in practice in majority of organizations today.

ELOTON MAYOR
His theories were borne out of the criticism of Hawthorne research. According to mayor, no change in any work condition could result solely from physical change but rather such a change could only occur as a result of the change in workers attitude. At the bottom of t eh triangle are t eh needs of our animalistic nature for self-preservation for sleep, food including shelter etc. These are the basic needs once satisfied they cease to be strong motivators to increase productivity or action. Thus, as human beings to feel more materially secured his higher needs for self-expression will begin to be strong. It follows, therefore, that, in stable circumstances and with proper management, the majority of the men can be self-directed if they become committed to an objective they value. They will not only accept responsibility but often will seek it, then to work will be as natural as to eat or to sleep as in McGregor’s Theory Y.

In other words, man can be self-motivated. The task of the manager (as one who accomplishes his objectives through others) is to create conditions of work in which and through which self-motivations can find its release. In situations where this is difficult to achieve as in dull, repetitive work, higher pay remains the paramount importance. Since workers are forced to find satisfaction outside the work situations.

DOUGLAS McGREGOR (THEORY X & Y)
He believe in group decision-making, which is constant with individual responsibility. McGregor is more particularly, for his influential model in which he contrasts two views of man in the working situations.

This, he, conveniently termed Theory X and Y. According to Theory X, he prosecuted that:
The average person has an inherent dislike for work and w ill try to avoid it if possible.

The average person lacks ambition, dislikes work responsibility and preferred to be closely directed, coerced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to get him to put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of corporate objectives.

The average person is resistance to change.

The average person is by nature self-centred and indifference to corporate goals.

On the other hand, theory Y says the above is not totally true because:
· The average person is not (as a fact) by nature, passive or resistant to the organization needs. That the expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

· In fact, external control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about efforts towards organizational goals. Particularly, economic benefits and job security, as a fact, are just only two of the possible rewards desired by the average man.

· The average human being leans, under the ideal conditions, to accept and seek responsibilities – wants to exercise autonomy and creativity to aid his/her growth ant eh accomplishment of corporate objectives.

In view of the above assumptions, McGregor thinks that the best managers could do is to use both theories (since they are “legitimate” beliefs about the nature of man that influence managers) to adopt one strategy than another situationally – that is, depending upon a prevailing situation, a manager who holds the belief, say, of theory X, could adopt a considerable array of strategies (either X or Y).

2.3 CURRENT LITERATURE REVIEW
2.3.1 DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION
Several management scholars have given several definitions of motivation. According to Middle Most and Hitt (1981), “Motivation is the willful desire to direct one’s behaviour toward goals. The three key elements in this definition are willful desire (Person’s choice), behaviour, and goal-directed purpose of behaviour.

Wallace and Andrews Zilagy (1994) opine that “Motivation is a dynamic process that, motivate, energizes, directs and determines change in behaviours. It must be understood from the onset that motivation is not only rewards and punishment; it includes ideas, expectations and experience. When it comes to motivation, people mostly act on perception and not reality”.

Lakin Folajin (2001), spoke at motivation as term used generally when somebody is stimulated, the interest of a workers so as to be able to work and bring or breeds efficiency in his work.

Luthans (1998), Motivation is a process which starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour at a drive that is aimed of a goal or incentive.

Ateman and Snell (1999) see motivation as the forces that energizes, direct and sustains a person’s effort.

Robbins (2001) defines motivation as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.

Joena Agbato (1988) says “motivation is an important determinant of human behaviour, it sit ht which movies one towards a goal, thus, motivation begat performance”.

Translated, it means when one is motivated, it precipitates a behaviour and this leads to performance. This means (100%) that one is positively motivated. It leads to positive behaviours and thus writes’ agree that motivated behaviour is goal-directed behaviours, which is behaviour resulting from internal drives. This internal devices or (tension) are the roof of motivation. Hence, it is important for managers to motivate behaviour so as to reduce these ‘tension’ even though it has been agreed that these motivation behaviour are “innate”. It should be stated, that sometime, external force can dominate and determine behaviour. Yet, at other times, it is directed towards self-satisfaction. Most significantly, behaviour is directed to obtain want, which will satisfy needs.

Ricky Griffin (1984) defined ‘motivation’ as a cyclical process affecting the inner needs that he or she wants to satisfy. Although there are certain common human needs, each person also has his own particular needs. Our strong needs provide us with personal goals that satisfy needs.

The intensity of needs and drive varies widely from one person to another. It is the strongest drive. The sound manager therefore, tries t o recognize the strong need especially the dominating ones in particular individuals. By so doing, he is able to understand his subordinates or employees and this will go a long way in achieving the enterprise objectives.

NEED WANT SATISFACTION CHAIN

NEED WANT TENSION


ACTION SATISFACTION

In conclusion, Gibson (1997) defined motivation as the concept used to describe the forces acting on or within an individual to initiate and direct behaviour.

The definition by Gibson portends two basic classifications of variables that could motivate people to work. These are variables acting on the individuals, these variables are external (process) therefore can be controlled by other people. The other set of variables are the variables acting within the individual (content) these variables are internal and reflects the state of need of the individual.

From these definitions, three basic elements can be seen as inherent in the concept of motivation. These elements are:
v Intensity: This refers to the degree of effort exerted by an individual or employee towards organizational goals. Employees put up different degrees of effort in achieving organizational goals.

v Direction: This refers to the area in which the employee directs his effort to, within the organization. If employee’s efforts are not directed towards organizational goal then the efforts are exercised in futility.

v Persistence: This refers to the extent to which effort or behaviour can be sustained. A t the commencement of work, a new employee is likely to exhibit a high degree of effort towards the organizational goals, but for how long can this employee sustain this effort?

The linkage between these three elements and job performance can be presented as a model of motivation as below:































MODEL 1
Needs


Perceived
Reward




Sanction



Situation
Intensity of Effort
Direction of Effort
Persistence of Effort





Motivational Behaviour





Performance Input Output








THE PROCESS OF MOTIVATION (MODEL II)

I
Need
Deficiencies
Performance Evaluation of Goal Accomplished
Reward or
Punishment
Reward or
Punishment
Search for ways to satisfy needs
Goal directed behaviour

The Employee



VI II




V III




IV
Model I: This model identifies the inputs to a motivations process as needs; perceive rewards, sanction and the situation.

The manifestation of these inputs varies from one individual to another and therefore the extent to which inputs manifest themselves in intensity of effort, direction of effort and persistency of effort also differs. The combination of these three variables will lead to a highly motivated behaviour; in other words, the absence of any of these three variables may timber the actualization of goals.

Model II: Motivation begins with the manifestation of a need. A need is a perceived state of deficiency, which if left unsatisfied, causes tension and anxiety in the needy. Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance Luthans (1998).

The normal human being will like to remain or stay in a position of physiological or psychological balance or on the other hand the normal human being dislike a state of tension and anxiety (State I) therefore, the corollary of need deficiencies to search for ways of satisfying their needs (Stage II). having found ways to satisfy his needs, the employee or individual begins to exhibit some goal direct behaviour such as attendance, and other job behaviour (Stage III) with the belief that these behaviours will lead to goal attainment.

The outcome of these behaviours exhibited in Stage III are evaluated by the employee’s manager. At this stage, the manager tries to ascertain the extent to which the employee has attained organizational goal or if there is a gap between actual performance and desired performance.

Depending on the outcome of Stage IV, the employee is either rewarded for performance or punished for non-performance Stage V. At Stage VI, the employee or individual re-assessed his or her need deficiencies. At this point, effort search for a different avenue to actualize the need.

2.3.2 TECHNIQUES FOR MOTIVATING THE EMPLOYEE
In proposing a motivation scheme for the employee, it is important to recognize this wants:

In the following paragraphs, we shall endeavour to identify some of the techniques for motivating the employee based on his wants – which we are mentioning below:

Pay: This want helps in satisfying physiological, security and egoistic needs. Employee needs to believe that he is paid a decent living wage, which compares, favoruably with what is offered in other organizations. However, the design of a monetary compensation system is exceedingly complex. Since it serves a satisfy multiple needs and cannot alone motivate the whole person.

Security of job: We are living in the age of automation. Machines are replacing human labour fast. Many people lose jobs for this reason. In Nigeria today, socio-economic problems make both the private and public sectors retrench workers. People no longer have confidence in any sector. This has greatly demoralized an average Nigerian worker. To be effectively motivated, the employees must be constantly assured of t eh security of this job.

Credit for work done: Excellent performance should be rewarded to boost the ego of the employee. This could be verbal praise, monetary, rewards for suggestions, awards, recognition for years of service, honesty.

Opportunity to advance: Most employees want opportunity for personal growth and development so as to be able to reach their greatest potential. This feeling is influenced by a cultural tradition of freedom and opportunity.

COMFORTABLE, SAFE AND ATTRACTIVE
Environment: The want for good working environment rests upon multiple needs. Safe working environment emanates from the security need.

Specifically, attributes such as desks and rugs, good curtains, bright illumination constitute status symbols denoting a hierarchy of importance.

Competent and fair leadership: Good leadership ensures that the organization and its jobs will continue to exist. Moreover, human ego demand that one respect the person from whom orders and directions are to be received. Ti is very frustrating to the subjected personally to a command from an individual who is deemed unworthy and incompetent.

Meaningful job: This wants issues from both the need for recognition and the drive towards self-realization and achievement. This is a very difficult want to supply, especially in large organizations where work is divided into minute parts. Here, the employee would want his contributions to be recognized and significant.

2.3.3 SYMPTOMS OF POOR MOTIVATION
The symptoms of poor motivation are indications and not causes of poor motivation. They include:
Ø Higher than the usual absenteeism and labour turnover.
Ø Dissatisfaction and low morale.
Ø Poor quality of work and higher spoilage rates.
Ø “Soldering” is reduced productivity.
Ø Deterioration of general attitude to work such as lack of cooperation, obstructive attitudes even declining standards of dressing and general conduct.
Ø Numerous incidences of industrial disputes and stoppages.

2.3.4 IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
The following are some importance of motivation in an organization. They include:
It energizes, intensifies, directs and brings about persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.

It leads to improvement in the performance of task by the workers in an organization.

Job enrichment leads to challenges, achievements, recognitions and responsibilities.

It brings about opportunity for personal growth and development among employees so as to be able to reach their greatest potential.

Motivation in the area where the employee is allowed to participate in management decision-making leads to self-esteem as stated in Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

2.4 SUMMARY
Motivation is the encouragement in cash and kind given to people in an organization to make them work well and willingly. Famous management theorists who have contributed to the theory of motivation include Maslow, Vroom, Hertzberg, McClelland and McGregor among others as stated in this project.

Certain factors influence the effectiveness of motivation efforts such as experience, desire, quoting and timing. There has been a lot of emphasis on the significance of monetary incentive especially in present-day Nigeria. Some even believe money is t eh only incentives desired by workers, about many compensation plans have failed due to over emphasis on salaries and wages. But, a lot of other things could motivate people and Nigerians in particular apart from money.

However, it is the poverty level of a society that influences how much role money plays as a motivator.
REFERENCES

Agbato, J.O. (1988): The Nature of Management, Lagos: Heinemann Publishing Company.

Akintunde, O. (2005): How to Motivate Workers to Achieve Higher Productivity, Ibadan; Unpublished ND Theses, Business Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Bateman. T. and Snell. S. (1999): Management: Building Competitive Advantage, Boston: 4th Edition, McGraw Hill.

Donely Gibson (1984): Fundamental of Management Plan, USA: Texas Business Company.

Folajin Lakin (2001): Psychology Made Easy, Osogbo: Ife-Olu Printing Press, Station Road, Osogbo, Nigeria.

Luthans Fred (1998): Organizational Behaviour, Boston: 9th Edition, McGraw Hill.

Marc Wallec et al (1984): Managing Behaviour in Organization.

Olufunke. O. Oyenuga (2000): Principles of Management, Lagos: Tolafik Press.

Roger Oldman (1982): Management, London: Pan Book Publishing Company.

Schwartz, D. (1986): Introduction to Management Principles, Practice and Process, Javanovid, Harcourt Brake Publishing Cooperation.

Trewatha Newpoint (1982): Management, New York: Texas Business Company International.

Welsh, A.N. (1988): The Skills of Management, London: Gower Press Field Limited.
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The task ahead of all researchers is to know or find answers to research questions and also ascertain either null hypothesis or alternative hypothesis. In achieving this objective, it is expedient for the researcher to use scientific procedure being tested, proven and acceptable.

This chapter obliges the approaches adopted in providing solution to questions, which this research work is base don, and a w ay of testing each of the hypothesis formulated. It aims at receiving research questions of this study and explaining the sampling and data collection procedure, together with the instrument to be used at the course of the information sourcing.

Furthermore, this chapter will usher me into the next chapter (i.e. 4): presentation and analysis of data. As the information source in this chapter will be raw materials needed in Chapter 4. it also ensures that relevant and up-data information is at reach.

3.2 RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES
The research questions are:
a. Tow hat extent does the personnel policy implemented by your company affect your productivity?


b. How often does the company embark on staff training and development?

c. Does your company clearly/respect trade union position of its employees?

d. Are there differences in the way staff and workers are treated in the organizations?

e. Is joint consultation practiced positively, as a method of obtaining employees’ views on problems and propose changes before final decisions are taken?

The research hypotheses are:
HO: The more there is effective motivations, the less the morale of employees.
H1: The more there is effective motivations, the more the morale of employees.

HO: Adoption of motivational techniques will automatically decrease the workers’ productivity.
H1: Adoption of motivational techniques will automatically increase the workers’ productivity.

HO: The success of an organization does not depend on t he motivational procedures being adopted.
H1: The success of an organization depends on the motivational procedures being adopted.

3.3 RESEARCH METHOD AND DESIGN
Research designing is the structuring of the investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationship. Since statistics is not only concerned with organizing and analyzing data once they are assembled but also with the source of data and how data are collected for study.

Based on this research work, a survey research will be conducted which involves the assessment of the workers’ opinion on the effectiveness of motivation towards achieving hither productivity with the use of questionnaire.

With this, a reasonable solution will be professed tot eh earlier research problems.

3.4 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
The method to be used to generate and collect data for this research work is the questionnaire. This appears on the open-ended and the close-ended method of questionnaire presentation.

The questionnaire is a set of questions packaged to elicit data from the study. It deals with the general information on the data i.e. name and designation of the respondents and their occupation, position in the company and the departments the respondents belong to.

3.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDY POPULATION
As the research is focused on motivation of workers, the population of the research will be the entire management team of Intercontinental Bank Plc. However, should the researcher has the opportunity to get in contact also with other important members and officers of the same organization that could be of help in getting the fact on the subject matter, there would not be hesitation in doing so. Based on the statement above, the research sample will precisely consist of 20 respondents randomly selected from the organization (i.e. Intercontinental Bank Plc). The respondents consulted are those that will give full, required and necessary information which the researcher desire for the study.

3.6 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURES
Due to lack of time and for the sake of simplicity in researching, simple random sampling would be used to select some workers.

The procedures for the analysis of the data have been divided into two parts:
a. Data presentation.
b. Content analysis.

The statistical tool to be used in testing the hypotheses is the Chi-Square analysis. The principle behind the Chi-Square test is that an observed set of values differs significantly from some expected or theoretical frequencies. It is thus a measure of discrepancy between the observed and expected frequencies and as given by:
X2 = E(O1 – E1)2
E1

Where: O1 = the observed or actual frequencies and
E1 = the expected frequencies.

This will be the use of two variables Chi-Square which allows a test of the independence of two variables.

General procedures in carrying out the Chi-Square are as follows:
v Set up the null and alternative hypotheses.
v Compute the expected and observed frequencies.
v Compute Chi-square by substituting the observed and expected values into the Chi-square formula.
v Obtained the tabulated Chi-square at the pre-determined level, using the (r – 1) (c – 1) degree of freedom from two variables.
v If the calculated value is less than the tabulated, accept HO; otherwise, it will be rejected (H1). The pre-determined ∝ level is 0.05.

3.7 DESCRIPTION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
Both primary and secondary data will be needed for this research work:
i. Primary data: These are data collected directly from respondents for the purpose of this study. Questionnaires will be used together with the needed primary data.

ii. Secondary data: These are data already collected (published or unpublished) by another persons. For the purpose of this study, published annual reports of the company (i.e. under the research work) will be used to collect detail secondary data. Management textbooks and other related articles and journals (if any) will also be used or apply as appropriate.

3.8 ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLELCTION INSTRUMENT
Questionnaires would be drawn and administered to the management team and other important officers of the Bank. The questionnaires will be divided into three sections.

Section A will contain personal data questions, Section B will contain organization’s data while Section C will contain questions the area of research topic. The research takes a random sampling method of choosing its respondents.

In the course of doing so, the researcher will introduce himself to one of the staff at the company, stating their mission and requesting for the truest of the respondents in supplying the relevant and necessary information.

3.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY
To start with, methodology is defined as the means, techniques and frames of references of arriving at dependable solution to problem through planned and collection, analysis and interpretation of data.

So, since the scope of the study or research is base don the management who are the decision-makers in the organization, their busy schedule might be a source of impediment (hindrance) to him (i.e. the researcher) in really getting all their attention administering to the questionnaire for the purpose of the study.

Furthermore, there might be unwillingness on the part of the respondents to divulge some vital information being asked through the structured questionnaire, which will also constitute part of the limitation to the methodology.

Lastly, the limitation is also subjected to the ability of the researcher as well.


REFERENCES


Adebayo, A.O. (1998): Understanding Statistics, Lagos: JAS Publishes.

Olagunju, Y.A. and Awoyokun, A.A. (2004): Element of Research Techniques, Ibadan: Highland Publishers.

Owojori, A.A. (2002): Managerial Research, Kaycee Publishers, Fist Edition.
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

4.1 INTRODUCTION
So far in this study, the focus has been on the general background of the research topic, literature review and the methodology used in carrying out the research work.

However, in this chapter, the data generated through the different sources especially the questionnaire, would be presented and analyzed. This chapter w ill thus form the crux of the study because without it, the work did so far will just be mere mental exertion and futile activities. Without the questions and hypotheses being tested and either accepted or rejected as the case may be, then the work is incomplete.

Therefore, the hypotheses and questions testing would be done using the method mentioned in paragraph 3.6 and therefore interpretation would be given based on the research questions and hypotheses testing.

4.2 RESPONDENTS’ CHARACTERISTICS ANDN CLASSIFICATION
The respondents were men and women who were knowledgeable in the human relation matter of the organization. There were twenty (20) questionnaires altogether in which were administered by top, middle and lower-level managements.

The respondents’ characteristics and classifications are presented into tables below:

Table 4.1: Age Classification
AGE GROUP
IN YEARS
RESPONDENTS

TOTAL
MALE
FEMALE
Under 20 years
21 – 30 years
31 – 40 years
Above 40 years
--
6
6
1
--
3
4
--
--
9
10
1
TOTAL
13
7
20

Table 4.2: Sample size distribution
VARIABLE
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE [%]
Male
Female
13
7
65
35
TOTAL
20
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.

Summary: From the above, the sample size is 20 respondents that completed the questionnaire and they comprises of 13 male and 7 female.

Table 4.3: Organization data
NAME OF THE
COMPANY
SIZE
TURNOVER
Intercontinental Bank Plc
Large
Over N500 million
TOTAL
20
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.
Summary: From the above, it is clear that the bank is a large one with a turnover that is over N500 million.

4.3 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA (RESEARCH QUESTIONS)
Under this paragraph, the responses to the questions raised in the questionnaire would be presented in a tabular form for easy analysis. Although about 12 questions were raised in the questionnaire, those that are related to the relevant research questions.

As a result of t his, only 3 of the research questions will be presented in the tabular form and analyses as expected. They are questions 16, 20 and 21 respectively. The following keys are used for each of the respondents:
T = Top-level management.
M = Middle-level management.
L = Lower-level management.

Table 4.4: Are the differences in the way staff and workers are treated in your organization?

RESPONDENTS
RESPONSE
T
M
L
TOTAL
%
Yes
No
--
1
2
8
3
6
5
15
25
75
TOTAL
1
10
9
20
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.

Summary: The above table shows that 75% of the respondents say that there are no differences in the way staff and workers are treated in the organization, while 25% say there are differences.

Table 4.5: Your company clearly define/respect trade union position of its employees?
RESPONDENTS
RESPONSE
T
M
L
TOTAL
%
Yes
No
1
--
9
2
7
1
17
3
85
15
TOTAL
1
11
8
20
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.

Summary: The above shows that 85% of the respondents say that company clearly defined/respect trade union position of its employees while 15% say otherwise.

Table 4.6: Is joint consultation practiced positively, as a method of obtaining employees’ views on problems and proposed charges before final decisions are taken?
RESPONDENTS
RESPONSE
T
M
L
TOTAL
%
Yes
No
1
--
6
2
8
3
15
5
75
25
TOTAL
1
8
11
20
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.

Summary: The above shows that 75% of the respondents agreed that joint consultation is being practiced positively in getting employees’ view while 25% disagree.

4.4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA (RESEARCH HYPOTHEHSES)
In this paragraph, the relevant research questions raised in the questionnaire would be presented in both tabular form and analyzed using Chi-square.

Hypothesis 1:
Table 4.7: Do workers’ motivation effective in achieving higher productivity?
RESPONDENTS
RESPONSE
T
M
L
TOTAL
%
Yes
No
1
--
7
1
8
2
16
3
75
25
TOTAL
1
8
10
19
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.

Analysis of the data above will be done using Chi-square formula:
X2cal = E(O – E)2
E
Where: O = Observed frequency
E = Expected frequency = rT x cT
GT
Where: rT = row total
cT = column total
GT = ground total

Table 4.8:
CALL
O
E
O – E
(O – E)2
(O – E)2
E
1,1
1,2
1,3
2,1
2,2
2,3
1
7
8
--
1
2
0.84
6.74
8.42
0.16
1.26
1.59
0.16
0.26
-0.42
-0.16
-0.26
0.14
0.0256
0.0676
0.1764
0.0256
0.0676
0.1681
0.0305
0.0100
0.0209
1.0000
0.0537
0.1057

1.2208

X2Cal = 1.2208

The decision rule is that, if the X2cal < X2tab, accept the H1 hypothesis and reject if otherwise. The hypothesis is tested with 0.05 level of significance using the related degree of freedom.

D.F = (R – 1) (C – 1) Where: R = Row
= (2 – 1) (3 – 1) C = Column
= 2

So, restating hypothesis I
HO: The more there is effective motivation, the less the morale of employees.
H1: The more there is effective motivation, the more the morale of employees.

From table 4.8:
TheX2cal = 1.2208.
And the X2tab at 0.05 level of significance = 5.991.

Decision: Since the X2cal < X2tab, we accept the H1 and reject the HO.

Hypothesis II:
Table 4.9: Does adoption of motivational technique automatically increase workers’ productivity?
RESPONDENTS
RESPONSE
T
M
L
TOTAL
%
Yes
No
1
--
6
2
9
1
16
3
75
25
TOTAL
1
8
10
19
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.
Table 4.10:
CALL
O
E
O – E
(O – E)2
(O – E)2
E
1,1
1,2
1,3
2,1
2,2
2,3
1
6
9
--
2
1
0.84
6.74
8.42
0.16
1.26
1.58
0.16
-0.74
0.58
-0.16
0.74
-0.58
0.0256
0.5476
0.3364
0.0256
0.05476
0.3364
0.0305
0.0812
0.0400
1.0000
0.4246
0.2129

1.7992

X2Cal = 1.7992

The decision rule is that, if the X2cal < X2tab, accept the H1 hypothesis and reject if otherwise. The hypothesis is tested with 0.05 level of significance using the related degree of freedom.

D.F = (R – 1) (C – 1) Where: R = Row
= (2 – 1) (3 – 1) C = Column
= 2

So, restating hypothesis II
HO: Adoption of motivational technique will automatically decrease the workers’ productivity.
H1: Adoption of motivational technique will automatically increase the workers’ productivity.

From table 4.10:
TheX2cal = 1.7992
And the X2tab at 0.05 level of significance = 5.991.

Decision: Since the X2cal < X2tab, we accept the H1 and reject the HO.

Hypothesis III:
Table 4.11: Has motivation brought about success in your organization’s operation?
RESPONDENTS
RESPONSE
T
M
L
TOTAL
%
Yes
No
1
--
8
--
9
1
18
1
75
25
TOTAL
1
8
10
19
100
Source: Field Survey, 2008.
Table 4.11:
CALL
O
E
O – E
(O – E)2
(O – E)2
E
1,1
1,2
1,3
2,1
2,2
2,3
1
8
9
--
--
1
0.95
7.58
9.47
0.053
0.42
0.53
0.05
0.42
-0.47
-0.053
-0.42
0.47
0.0025
0.1764
0.2209
0.0028
0.1764
0.2209
0.0026
0.0233
0.0233
0.0528
1.0000
0.4168

1.5188

X2Cal = 1.5188

The decision rule is that, if the X2cal < X2tab, accept the H1 hypothesis and reject if otherwise. The hypothesis is tested with 0.05 level of significance using the related degree of freedom.

D.F = (R – 1) (C – 1) Where: R = Row
= (2 – 1) (3 – 1) C = Column
= 2

So, restating hypothesis III
HO: The success of an organization does not depend on the motivational procedures being adopted.
H1: The success of an organization depends on the motivational procedures being adopted.

From table 4.11:
TheX2cal = 1.5188
And the X2tab at 0.05 level of significance = 5.991.

Decision: Since the X2cal < X2tab, we accept the H1 and reject the HO.
4.5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Based on the work done so far in this chapter, especially in paragraphs 4.3 and 4.4 respectively, together with other questions administered by the respondents in the questionnaire, it was discovered that motivation is very effective in achieving higher productivity. Joint consultation is being practiced positively, as a method of obtaining employees views on problems and proposed changes before final decisions are taken.

Management incorporated different means such as: promotion of staff, good remuneration, welfare service, training and education on job and provision of scholarship and awards to retain the loyalty of their staff.

Conclusively, one can deduce that motivation of workers is essential and indispensable towards realizing organizational goals.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMAMRY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 SUMMARY
The aim of this study is to determine whether motivation is effective in achieving higher productivity among workers in Intercontinental Bank Plc, other relevant areas which the study highlighted are: the reaction of the workers towards their duties when motivation is employed by the employer and how the managers can apply motivational theories of management in their attempt to direct the job behaviour of employees towards the goals of their establishment.

The general description of the area of study, which depicted the inevitability of motivation in achieving higher productivity in an organization, was stated. In the course of the study, statement of problem such as; workers leaving the organization due to poor motivation, their unwillingness to perform their duties well and how to motivate them to achieving desired productivity level were pointed out. To ascertain the application of the motivational techniques by the organization concerned and to know the problem inhibiting the success of the employees’ motivation in the organization forms essential part of the objectives of the study. Questions relating to the objectives and problems were also looked at.

The study looked into some review literatures that covered different models and theories on motivation by different scholars, various definitions given by several management scholars, different means of motivating workers or simply type of motivation and the importance of motivation. Various textbooks, journals, articles and other scholarly materials were used to get terms, ideas, concepts and academic as well as professional view points.

The management team of Intercontinental Bank Plc, together with important officers of the organization were selected as the study population with the use of simple random sampling. Both primary and secondary data were also used for this research work. The primary data was based on questionnaire while the secondary data was based on published and unpublished works. The data collected w ere processed and analyzed through the use of Chi-square.

5.2 CONCLUSION FROM FINDINGS
From the assertions of the respondents to questions answered in the questionnaire administered to them, certain conclusions could be made.

Firstly, motivation is employed on regular basis. The fact that motivation is employed regularly shows its importance in achieving higher productivity among workers. It was also observed that its level of reliability and relevance towards productivity cannot be over-emphasized.

Furthermore, its usefulness in sustaining the efficiency and effectiveness of workers in the organization further reveals its indispensability.

Moreso, various means of motivation such as, good remuneration, welfare services and training of staff etc has been brought into limelight that was used in the organization.

On the issue of personal data in the questionnaire, it was observed that the male workers in the company, i.e. Intercontinental Bank Plc are more than the female counterparts. This implies that, more male are being employed than female in the organization.

Conclusively, the task of using motivation to achieving higher productivity is worthy considering all these accruing benefits stated earlier.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
The following are the recommendations which are found useful and if rationally adopted, will go a long way in enhancing the effectiveness and the usefulness of motivation in achieving higher productivity in the organization. These recommendations include:

v Since motivation in very effective towards achieving higher productivity, there is need for the management of Intercontinental Bank Plc to regularly use it in order to benefit from its effectiveness.

v The company should continuously embark on recruitment and training of staff in response to their needs.

v Management of the bank should consider the employment of more female staff since naturally, it will serve as motivation for the male counterpart in interacting with opposite sex, producing social liveliness that also encourage efficiency and effectiveness in an organization.

v The various means for motivation discovered and stated in the chapter two and in the conclusion of this research work should be strictly adhered to by the management so that productivity level enjoy in the course of using motivation can be maintained and even increased.

v The packages (incentives) should be enjoyed by all the workers without any discrimination and discrepancy to prevent loopholes to achieving their organization’s goals.

5.4 LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES
The questionnaires suffered a poor response from the top-level management due to their tight and busy schedules in which their absolute positive response would have given perfect judgment on the effectiveness of motivation towards higher productivity.

Moreso, the research work could not cover wide range of respondents due to time and financial constraints.

With these, it would be suggested that any other researcher(s) willing to do his/her/their research work on this area should endeavour to get much of the opinions from middle and lower-level management who were not as busy as the top-level managers.

Conclusively, future researchers in this area of work should base their research work on all or some selected companies in the Banking Industry in order to have a wider scope of its (i.e. motivation) effectiveness and the Banking sector.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adedayo, A.O. (1998): Understanding Statistics, Lagos: JAS Publishers.

Agbato, J.O. (1988): The Nature of Management, Lagos: Heinemann Publishing Company.

Ajayi Nelson (1991): Managerial Planning and Control, Ibadan: University of Ibadan Press Limited.

Akintunde, O. (2005): How to Motivate Workers to Achieve Higher Productivity, Ibadan: Unpublished ND Theses, Business Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Bateman, T. and Snell, S. (1991): Management: Building Competitive Advantage, Boston: 4th Edition, McGraw Hill Books International.

Donely Gibson (1984): Fundamental of Management Plan, USA: Texas Business Company.

Folajin Lakin (2001): Psychology Made Easy, Osogbo: Ife Olu Printing Press, Station Road, Osogbo, Nigeria.

Kolawole, E.O. (2002): The Effectiveness of Auditor Report on Management Decision-Making of Some Selected Companies in Insurance Industries, Lagos: Unpublished B.Sc. Accounting, University of Ado-Ekiti, Davis Binders & Printers.

Luthans Fred (1998): Organizational Behaviour, Boston: 8th Edition, McGraw Bill Books International.

Marc Wallec et al (1984): Managing Behaviour in Organizations.

Olagunju, Y.A. and Awoyokun, A.A. (2004): Element of Research Techniques, Ibadan: Highland Publishers, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Olufunke O. Oyenuga (2000): Principles of Management, Lagos: Tolafik Press.

Owojori, A.A. (2002): Managerial Research, Lagos: Kaycee Publishers.

Roger Oldman (1982): Management, London: London Pan Book Publishing Company.

Schwartz. D. (1986): Introduction to Management Principles, Practice and Process, Javanovid, Harcourt Brake Publishing Cooperation.

Trewatha Newpoint (1982): Management: USA: Texas Business Company International.

Selsh, A.N. (1988): The Skill of Management, London: London Gower Press Field Limited.

JOURNAL:
Intercontinental Bank Plc (2005): Annual Reports and Accounts.

MONOGRAPH:
Wole Adesina (2002): Project Writing Manual, Unpublished.
QUESTIONNAIRE



Department of Business Administration,
Lagos State Polytechnic,
Ikorodu, Lagos,
Lagos State.


Dear Sir/Ma,

RE: QUESTIONNAIRE

I am a final year HND Student of the above mentioned institution and I am writing a research project on “The Effect of Motivation on Workers Productivity”, as part of the requirements for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in Business Administration.

In light of this, I would need some information to assist me in completing the attached questionnaire. Your responses will be made confidential.

I count much on you in this regard.

Yours faithfully,






Researcher
RESEEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

SECTION A:
PERSONAL DATA

Please tick where applicable in the box/space provided below:

1. Sex:
a. Male [ ]
b. Female [ ]

2. Marital status:
a. Single [ ]
b. Married [ ]

3. Age:
a. Under 20 years [ ]
b. 21 – 30 years [ ]
c. 31 – 40 years [ ]
d. 40 and above [ ]

4. Academic and professional qualifications:
a. OND/NCE holder [ ]
b. B.Sc./HND holder [ ]
c. M.Sc./MBA holder [ ]
d. Professional (Please specify): _________________________

5. Post/Rank: ___________________________________________

6. Working experience:
a. Less than 10 years [ ]
b. Between 11 – 19 years [ ]
c. Between 20- 29 years [ ]
d. Over 30 years [ ]

SECTION B:
ORGANIZATIONAL DATA

7. Name of the company: _________________________________

8. Size of the company:
a. Small [ ]
b. Medium [ ]
c. Large [ ]

9. Turnover:
a. Below N100 million [ ]
b. Between N100 – N300 million [ ]
c. Between N300 – N500 million [ ]
d. Over N500 million [ ]

10. Department: ___________________________________________

SECTION C:
IMPACT OF MOVITATION ON WORKERS’ PRODUCTIVITY
11. Do workers motivation effective in achieving higher productivity?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

12. If yes, how effective is it for higher productivity?
a. Fairly effective [ ]
b. Very effective [ ]
c. No effective [ ]
d. I don’t know [ ]

13. Is there boosting in the performance of the employees as a result of motivation?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

14. Does adoption of motivational technique automatically increase workers’ productivity?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

15. Has motivation brought about success in your organization’s operations?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

16. Are there differences in the way staff and workers are treated in your organization?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]
c. If yes, is anything being done to remove these differences?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

17. How often does your company embark on training and recruitment of staff?
a. All year round [ ]
b. Quarterly [ ]
c. Occasionally [ ]
d. In response to the needs of each department [ ]

18. Has your company at any time in the past suffered low turnover as a result of the personnel policy being implemented?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

19. What has your company done to retain the loyalty of its staff?
a. Promotion of staff yearly [ ]
b. Good remuneration [ ]
c. Welfare service [ ]
d. Training and education on job [ ]
e. Scholarships and awards [ ]
f. Please indicate any combination above: __________________

20. Does your company clearly define/respect trade union position of its employees?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

21. Is joint consultation practiced positively as a method of obtaining employees views on problems and proposed charges before final decisions are taken?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

22. From the responses so far, will you conclude that motivation of workers is relevance and indispensable to your organization’s higher productivity?
a. Yes [ ]
b. No [ ]

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